1-818-812-7222 Office Hours: 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM
10 Congress St., Suite #300
Pasadena, CA 91105

Tag: SADI

Vitamin D Metabolism and Deficiency file

March 28, 2020 8:17 am

It’s important to understand Vitamin D metabolism and deficiency potential following weight loss surgery Vitamins after DS need to be followed via laboratory blood studies. There are basic vitamin needs but individual needs should be based on medical history, genetics, alimentary limb length, common channel length and other surgical and physiologic determinations. Vitamins after DS are a life long commitment as well as protein needs and hydration. Duodenal Switch is a malabsorptive procedure which requires at least yearly laboratory blood studies, daily vitamins/minerals, daily high protein and daily hydration intake. There is not an all in one vitamin that is adequate for a DS patient or tailored to your individual needs. (example: you may need more Vitamin D and less Vitamin A if you are taking a all-in-one vitamin you can’t get more of one and less of another vitamin)

DS patients are recommended to take Dry forms (water miscible form) of Vitamin A, D3, E, K due to the fat malabsorption after DS. Dry formulations by Biotech are processed so they can be absorbed by a water soluble method after the DS procedure. Vitamin D seems to be the vitamin that can become deficient the easiest, followed by Vitamin A. Take these vitamins away from dietary fat.

In some cases, patients may need injectable Vitamin A or D to improve vitamin levels.

Click the links to view the information below and within the comments of this file:
Vitamin D3 50 by Biotech:  Amazon
directly from BioTech:

Many DS surgeon’s do not recommend Children’s vitamins or chewable vitamins unless there is a specific reason or need for them.
DS Surgeon Blog on Vitamin D:
Webinar on Vitamin D metabolism:
Medications that effect Bone health:
This does not constitute medical advice, diagnosis or prescribing. It is simply a compiled list of gathered information. If you are in doubt or have questions please contact your medical healthcare professional.

Stapled Anastomosis

December 30, 2019 11:23 am

As I was looking over old archives, I came across the following pictures that were taken years ago. These were photographs taken to demonstrate the technique for the construction of the anastomosis of the biliopancreatic channel and alimentary channel of the Duodenal Switch.

The steps of doing the stapled anastomosis of the Duodenal Switch is generally unchanged during the laparoscopic approach to the procedure.

The fist step is to align the bowel to be joined.

The stitches are placed to secure the bowel together. Two small openings are made in each limb of the bowel to be stapled together (the biliopancreatic limb on the  bottom and the alimentary on the top of the image).

It is important to also align the bowel in the same peristalsis direction. This means that the contraction and the relaxation motion of the bowel should all point in the same direction. This should reduce the risk of complications such as intussusception.

The stapler is then fired in opposite directions to create wide anastomosis.

When the stapler is fired in opposite direction, a very wide anastomosis is created.

 

Closure
Closing the opening that was made

Once the anastomosis is created, then the last staple is used to close the opening that was made. This staple line is perpendicular to the direction of the anastomosis to avoid making the opening narrow.

We originally published this technique in 2003 on Obesity Surgery Journal.

Sleeve And Weight Regain

July 22, 2019 9:50 am

Sleeve gastrectomy has become the most frequently performed operation in the US. Sleeve as a part of the Duodenal Switch or as a stand alone operation has been offered in our practice for nearly 20 years. As a precondition to this, patients’ choosing to have the sleeve, especially with high BMI (>45) and those with metabolic conditions (diabetes, high cholesterol or triglycerides, PCOS, and others) we have always recommended Duodenal Switch as the procedure of choice instead of the Sleeve Gastrectomy due to improved and lasting co-morbid resolution  and weight loss maintenance with Duodenal Switch. It has been know for years that a sizable number of patients having the sleeve will experience weight regain requiring conversion to the duodenal switch or the RNY Gastric Bypass. Majority of the patients having gained weight after sleeve, or experiencing the return of co-morbidities after a transient resolution during the their weight loss phase, should only be revised to the Duodenal switch operation in my opinion. The alternative procedures of SIPS and SADI or similar single anastomosis operation with confusing nomenclature should be avoided, since as of the publication of this blog they are still considered investigational by the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) with no long term data.  The only plausible reason for revision of the Sleeve to the gastric bypass (RNY) would be those patients who are experiencing reflux. Felsernreich et.al. demonstrated that 10 years after sleeve gastrectomy  33% were requiring revisions of their sleeve due to weight regain or reflux. 66% needed revision for weight loss and only 34% for reflux. Those patients who have revision to gastric bypass (in their practice all being revised with two exception) had resolution of their reflux however had no sustained weight loss after the revisions. This supports our position that we have had for years that the those patient who had the sleeve and are experiencing weight regain, recurrence of comorbidities inadequate weight loss ahould all be revised to the duodenal switch operation.

Thyroid Medication Absorption And Weight Loss Surgery

June 10, 2019 8:59 am

Question : “Do I have to take higher dose of thyroid medication after the duodenal switch? ”

Answer : “Maybe”

With all weight loss surgical procedures, there may be changes to absorption of medications. It is easily understood why duodenal switch may results in decreased absorption of fat-soluble medication. What is not as clear is the reduction in absorption of other medication with procedures that do not explicitly change the absorption at the level of the small bowel directly.

The research data is all over on this topic. There is published literature that shows improvement in the thyroid function after gastric bypass and the sleeve gastrectomy.  However, the exact mechanism is not completely understood.

There is research that reports “…decreased postoperative levothyroxine requirements.” Other have shows no correlation between the length of the bowel distal to duodenum to absorption of thyroid medication.

With all this confusing data, the best course would be to always “treat the patient and not the lab results.”

If a patients who has been on medications with stable number and symptoms,  suddenly presents with complaints of hypothyroidism after weight loss surgery, it’s possible the medications should be up adjusted even if the thyroid lab values may not be as defining.

   

Osteoporosis Medications, Action and Side Effects

May 25, 2019 3:40 pm

Recently I had a short live presentation on the subject of osteoporosis, osteoporosis medications, and the treatment options of this deteriorating bone condition. A patient who has had a bone scan may be diagnosed with Osteopenia and/or Osteoporosis. This information is usually conveyed by the forms of a Low T score. Both of these indicated demineralization of the bones, and the end result is  worsening of the bone structure. This leads to weaker bones and higher chance of fracture due to stress or trauma.

Treatment options should be approached is a global and systemic fashion. It is critical that the nutritional status is at its best possible and optimized for important healthy bone vitamins and minerals. Low protein needs to be corrected. Special attention should be given to nutrients, minerals and vitamins. These include ProteinCalcium, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Vitamin K1/K2to name a few.

Healthy bones require ongoing and routine force in the form of exercise to remain health. Just as exercise improves muscle strength, it also improves bone health. Exercise is also critical in improving bone structure and density. Ideally, exercise should be weight bearing and resistance.  Examples include: hiking, walking, jogging, climbing stairs, playing tennis, and dancing. Resistance type exercise is weight lifting and resistance bands.  These exercise work by creating a pull or force on the bone either by gravity, movement or weight.  Always check with your physician before beginning an exercise routine, start slowly and building up to longer periods of time.  The ideal goal would be at least 30 minutes a day, every day, if you are able.

We frequently see patients immediately started on osteoporosis medications without checking or improving some of the nutritional markers noted above or without looking at exercise history. In some case, the medication recommended are contraindicated due to nutritional status.

The medications can be grouped in to those  that help with new bone formation (Anabolic agents) or those that help by suppressing the bone breakdown phase (Antiresorptive agents).

Groups of Medication

 

National Osteoporosis Foundation has an exhaustive list (below) of medications for treatment of Osteoporosis.

The table below outlines the side effects and mechanism of the actions of the common medications used for treatment of  osteoporosis which was published by the University Health News Publication on August of 2014.

Mechanism Of Action And Side Effects

 

With all this information, the few points to remember is that the most important factors in healthy bone structure are the nutritional status Protein, Calcium, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Vitamin K1 levels.

This is an animation of normal bone Metabolism. It shows how bone structures is taken down and rebuilt continuously. This allows for a healthy bone maintainence as we age. The key is the balance of breakdown (osteoclast) and the build up (osteoblast) activity is regulated. Osteoporosis develops when there is more breakdown that build up.

With permission of Dr. Susan Ott of University of Washington.

Additional information available on her site.

Past blogs on Bone Health.

GI Bleed following Weight Loss Surgery

September 17, 2018 10:28 am

Gastrointestinal (GI) Bleed following weight loss surgery is rare but does require knowledge of the particular bariatric surgical procedure the patients has and how to proceed with diagnostics to fully evaluate the situation. Acute or chronic gastrointestinal bleeding can cause anemia in patients. However, Anemia may also be caused by nutritional deficiencies (iron, vitamin , minerals), Kidney disease, bone marrow disease and others. The work-up for anemia following weight loss surgery follows a routine protocol. If there is an evidence of bleeding from intestine (bloody emesis, bloody bowel movement, “tar” like black bowel movements) then the diagnostic work up would include an upper and lower endoscopy.

Endoscopic Procedures:

Upper endoscopy Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD): evaluates the esophagus, stomach and a limited area of the duodenum past pyloric valve.

Normal Anatomy
Normal Anatomy

Lower endoscopy Colonoscopy or coloscopy: evaluates the rectus and the entire colon.

Between these two tests, there is still a considerable amount of the small bowel that is not accessible or visualized with endoscopic procedures. For the small bowel, examination Capsule endoscopy is an option in an intact GI tract. Patients who have had Gastric bypass RNY or the Duodenal Switch, the large segments of the small bowel can not be visualized or examined with capsule endoscopy.

RNY Gastric Bypass
RNY Gastric Bypass
Duodenal Switch Two Anastomosis
Duodenal Switch Two Anastomosis
SADI-S Single Anastomosis Duodeno-ileal - Sleeve
SADI-S Single Anastomosis Duodeno-ileal - Sleeve

Patients who have had Duodenal Switch, Gastric Bypass and SADI – S would need a tagged red cell scan or CT angiography if GI bleed is suspected in areas of the small intestine that are inaccessible by endoscopic procedures.

PolyCystic Ovarian Syndrome PCOS

September 04, 2018 9:58 am

PolyCystic Ovarian Syndrome PCOS is a complex condition. The exact cause of PCOS is unknown however, it involves hormones imbalance and multiple ovarian cysts, irregular menses, and infertility. In some cases, PCOS can be compounded by diabetes, hypertension and other metabolic conditions. PCOS has been shown to effect approximately 10% of women of childbearing age with symptoms of menstrual abnormalities, poly cystic ovaries, and excess androgen (male sex hormone). PCOS should be diagnosed by ensuring there are no other underlying endocrine issues. There are several associated disease processes that seem to be related to PCOS. These related disease processes are Type 2 Diabetes, higher depression and anxiety, increased cardiovascular risks, stroke, hyperlipidemia, sleep apnea, overall inflammation, and endometrial cancer.

Anatomically, numerous cysts are found on the ovaries. These are usually diagnosed by ultrasound, blood levels of hormones, and symptoms described above.

Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome
Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome

Bariatric Surgery and PolyCystic Ovarian Syndrome PCOS

Bariatric Surgery can improve PCOS in those individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Further information on weight loss surgery and its effect on PCOS here.

Standard Common Channel In Duodenal Switch Will Result In Weight Regain.

December 16, 2016 1:57 pm

Stéfane Lebel, M.D.*, Geneviève Dion, M.D., Simon Marceau, M.D., Simon Biron, M.D., M.Sc., Maud Robert, M.D., Laurent Biertho, M.D. earlier this year released a research article comparing patients undergoing standard common channel of 100cm and standard common channel 200cm. The conclusion of this article was: “In this population, BPD-DS with a 200-cm common channel offered similar remission rate of co-morbidities compared with standard BPD-DS. It was associated with similar weight loss at nadir, followed by a more significant weight regain. It might yield a lower rate of nutritional complications. Long-term randomized data are needed to detect other potential advantages.”

Our Experience:

One of the most dreaded outcomes of any weight loss surgical procedure is weight regain. This is assuming that initial adequate weight was lost to result in resolution of the co-morbidities in the first place.  As the weight loss surgical field has changed over the years so has been the cases of regain that we have seen.

There was a time when Lap bands were being revised for inadequate weight loss and weight regain. Not to mention the complications of reflux, difficulty swallowing and persistent Nausea and vomiting. Then as more Gastric bypass procedures “aged” the number of patients that started looking for revision for weight regain increased. The latest fad is the Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy that are done with false sense of expectation and results. The long term outcome of Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy is no where close to that of the Duodenal Switch, independent of the size of the sleeve. In fact, more surgeons are trying to get a little more weight loss by making the sleeve too tight. All they are doing is creating a significant and debilitating set of problems such as reflux, nausea, and solid intolerance.

The ideal revisional procedure for these patients should be the Duodenal Switch. Some surgeons, however, have started advocating “single anastomosis” knock off the duodenal switch. Others do “standard length common channel” rather than a Hess method Duodenal Switch. I have always performed a traditional Hess method Duodenal Switch.  The Hess method Duodenal Switch has held the largest and longest excess weight loss maintenance for 28 years, going into 29 years.  Here is a past blog regarding small bowel length.

The predetermined standard common channel results in weight regain. Study

 

Minimally Invasive Weight Loss Surgery

May 17, 2016 9:02 am

Minimally Invasive does not mean better, easier, proven outcomes or good excess weight loss. Weight loss surgical patients  should be careful of catch phrases such as “less invasive”, “simpler”, “shorter recovery”, “outpatient” and many others that had been used to  described procedures with less than optimal outcome.  We should not forget the lessons learned from adjustable gastric banding which was also promoted as  ” less invasive, simpler to perform, and be done as an outpatient with a short recovery “.  We all know how that story has panned out. The overwhelming majority of patients who had an adjustable gastric banding  have undergone revision, had it removed or had additional surgeries following the complications  which were associated with this simple procedure.

When evaluating outcome data for weight loss surgical procedures, it is important to bear in mind that the long-term success of these procedures will take years to document.  More often than not the early weight loss is significantly better than the long-term stable weight loss. This has been clearly documented in the case of the adjustable gastric banding and the gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy operation. Duodenal switch , as described by Dr. Hess using the percentage based technique, has the best long-term documented success of all of the weight loss surgical procedures.   The scientific data reports 20+ years of  successful excess weight loss with a Hess Duodenal Switch procedure.   There has been an alternative proposed to Duodenal Switch recently, the SIPS and SADI  procedures.  As I have already stated in the past, these are not the same as the duodenal switch operation.  Any suggestion or innuendos that SIPS/SADI is the same as the Duodenal Switch is deceptive and misleading.    We have also seen attempts to use the same catch phrases as described above to promote these unproven procedures. The published data that’s been reported with SIPS/SADI is mostly short-term in small population studies.  There are no long-term studies that have documented the efficacy of the SIPS/SADI procedure and “simpler” or minimally invasive does not mean better.