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Tag: Vitamin A

Overfed But Undernourished

October 01, 2019 11:27 am

Obesity is related to as many as 400,000 deaths each year in the US and it has increasingly been recognized as a risk factor for several nutrient deficiencies. This may seem surprising given the likelihood of over consumption of calories, however these additional calories are not from nutritious sources. One of the main reason for these nutritional deficits is the greater availability of inexpensive foods that are rich in calories and are nutrient deficient. This has led some medical professional to conclude that there is a certain group of people who are overfed but undernourished.  Even with the epidemic of the obesity, there is significant nutritional deficiencies noted.

Obese subjects have increased blood volume, cardiac output, adiposity, lean mass and organ size all of which can influence volume of distribution, in addition, treatment for severe obesity involving surgical procedures can worsen these nutrient deficiencies and in some cases may cause new ones to develop.

This table shows the percentage of population below the estimated average requirement (EAR) by body weight status in adults more tan 19 years old, showing that almost 90 to 100 percent of people including normal weight (NW) are below the EAR of vitamin D and Vitamin E.

Nutrition TableNutritional deficiencies in obese patients may promote the development of chronic diseases including increased insulin resistance, pancreatic B-cell disfunction and diabetes, this is because specific micronutrients are involved in glucose metabolic pathways; There are other chronic diseases related to obesity that are being investigated such as decrease in focal grey matter volume and cognitive impairment or inadequate sleep due to low intake of antioxidant vitamins.

We would like to thank Miguel Rosado, MD for his significant contribution provided for this Blog.

Vitamin A, Absorption, and Wound Healing

September 25, 2019 8:39 am

Vitamin A is one of the 4 fat soluble vitamins along with vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K. It is multifunctional  and essential which means that it is not produced by the body.  In this article we will touch on aspects of Vitamin A absorption and it’s effect on wound healing as well as its metabolism.

We often think of Vitamin A as the critical vitamin for vision, however it has several other roles that related to immune function, protein synthesis, and cellular communication.  Vitamin A deficiency is a concern world wide because of the natural of the side effects. Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness in the world according to UNICEF and sometimes it may be undetected until there is irreversible damage.

There are 2 chemical forms of vitamin A in diet:

Retinoids (Preformed vitamin A) This group include retinol, retinyl esters, and retinal they are mostly found in animal sources like liver, egg yolk or fish oils.

Carotenoids (Provitamin A) This group includes beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and lycopene, mainly found in plant sources like leafy vegetables or yellow/orange vegetables and fruits. 

The Physiology of the Vitamin A is as follows:

1.- Ingested food is digested in the stomach where retinyl palmitates (esters) are released from proteins. Retinol and beta-carotene are absorbed directly into the small intestine where retinyl esters and betacarotene are transformed into retinol . Retinol is the most easily absorbed form of vitamin A.

2.-That retinol absorbed by the enterocytes in the ileum (small intestine) along with bile is then  transported to the liver with the help of chylomicrons a protein that transports fat.

3.-Fifty to 80% of the vitamin A is stored in the liver and the remaining is deposited into adipose tissue, lungs and kidneys.

4.-When stored retinol is released from the liver into the circulation to target organs, it is bound to plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP4) a transporting protein produced by the liver that requires ZINC, which is synthesized by the liver; This complex is stabilized by transthyretin (TTR), which reduces renal excretion.

Retinol is a crucial component for reproduction, embryological development, cellular differentiation, growth, protein synthesis, and immunity in the form of retinoic acid and vision in the form of retinal. 

One of Vitamin A additional roles is in epithelial health of skin and mucous membranes. It increases epithelial turnover which is crucial during would healing. It also has anti-oxidative effects which prevent cell damage and can prevent or reverse the effects of other damaging agents.  In addition to these benefits it has also been associated with increasing collagen, fibronectin, keratinocytes and fibroblast, all important in wound tissue structure. There have been some studies that suggest giving higher doses of Vitamin A in patients with non or slow healing wounds.

It is important to remember that we have documents delayed diagnosis of adult vitamin A deficiency leading to significant night blindness in adults.  It is critical that the patients and their primary care physicians are acutely aware of this possibility.  In majority of the patients with low vitamin A, post weight loss surgery, aggressive supplementations, including injections need to be considered as a part of the treatment regimen.

We would like to thank Miguel Rosado, MD for his significant contribution provided for this Blog.

Compounding Pharmacies

January 22, 2018 2:38 pm

New FDA regulations for compounding pharmacies has spurred changes in our pricing and ability to provide injectable Vitamin A and Vitamin D.  The compounding pharmacies are no longer compounding injectable Vitamin A and there is a nationwide shortage of the national brand of injectable Vitamin A.  We have a tentative date of February 2018 when we may be able to obtain injectable Vitamin A. We won’t be able to quote pricing on Vitamin A injections until we are able to orders.

We are able to obtain and supply our patients with injectable Vitamin D but with a price increase.

The following is the letter we received from our compounding pharmacy.

“The healthcare industry has continuously undergone changes in regulations and legislation. The compounding industry is no exception and has faced rigorous regulatory requirements this past year such as new testing specifications and compliance standards.

We are set on facing these demanding challenges by meeting and exceeding these new regulatory requirements. We want to assure you we will continue to provide the best products on the market for you and your patients. Quality and safety remain a top priority. We understand that our pharmacy plays a vital role in providing care to your patients. The increase in pricing is a reflection of the additional cost in producing and testing the product based on regulatory specifications.”

Vitamin D And A -Dry (Water soluble) Formulary

August 24, 2013 7:57 pm

Vitamin A and D are fat soluble vitamins. This means that in order for them to be absorbed by the GI track, them need to be absorbed by fat globules (chylomicrons). These are then taken up by the lymphatics of the GI track and taken to the blood stream. With the anatomical changes of the Duodenal Switch, the fat absorption capacity is significantly reduced. This results in excellent weight loss. It also results in much diminished absorption of the Fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. It is essential to use Dry Water Soluble forms of Vitamins A, D, E, and K.  Bio-Tech is a brand that is formulated in this manner.

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The Biotech D3-50 has 50,000IU of Vitamin D.

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We recommend specific dosages of dry (water soluble) Vitamin A and D. These are not available at most pharmacies. In fact when our recommendations are presented at most pharmacies they are incorrectly dispensed with the fat soluble variety with is worth less becasue it is not absorbed by the duodenal switch patients.  It is also important to not that this type of vitamin should not be taken with any dietary fat.  Fat can inhibit the absorption of this type of vitamin. When ordering online, please make sure that the “Dry” or “Water Soluble” formulary is ordered.