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Tag: Duodenal Switch

Zoom Group Meeting

September 21, 2020 7:10 am

We are excited to announce we will be having a Zoom group meeting Tuesday, September 22, 2020 at 7:00 PM PST.  We hope to see you online!

Registration is required. Please follow the link to the meeting registration.

Topic: Group meeting question and answer
Time: Sep 22, 2020 07:00 PM Pacific Time (US and Canada)
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These meetings are for general topics and/or basic question and answers.  If you need a more in-depth meeting we would suggest a video or in-person consultation with Dr. Keshishian.  You can request a consultation via this link.  Contact Us

Vitamin D and COVID 19

June 13, 2020 4:40 pm

There has been extensive discussion on the importance of Vitamin D published over the last few years in regards to bone health, immune health and Calcium physiology. The importance of vitmain D and bone structure has been discussed extensively. It is also important in the absorption of Calcium. It further plays role in immune modulation.

What is new is the possible correlation of Vitamin D and COVID 19. Recently it is been shown that low vitamin D may increase the risk of a poor outcome with Covid-19 exposure and infection.

There are different standard recommendation for the Vitamin D levels.

In our practice we aim to maintain a Vitamin D level of 0ver 60 in post weight loss surgical patients.

There are a number of theories as to how the Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in this. An emerging observation is that low Vitamin D may cause abnormal and excessive blood clot formation. Mohammad et. al. in 2019 published a study on the association of low vitamin D and “…Pathogenesis of Thrombosis”

This pathologic blood clot formation in COVID-19 patients may explain the extensive lung injury and  multi system organ failure in some patient. It is also one of the reason that some COVID-19 patients have loss limbs or appendages.

Please follow all supplement recommendations based on your laboratory studies and all COVID-19 recommendations. We would recommend frequent hand washing, surface cleaning, social distancing, and wearing face masks as the most basic precautions and increase precautions based on your health status.

Vitamin D and Covid -19

May 07, 2020 9:24 am

We are all aware of the many roles that Vitamin D plays in our bodies. This includes immune function in addition to all the regulatory roles that Vitamin D plays in several physiologic reactions. There may be a correlation of low Vitamin D and COVID-19 infection increasing death risk as looked at in research articles.

Covid -19 in a subset of patience causes significant lung injury. These patients require mechanical ventilation.

Previously reported publications have suggested a possible correlation between ace inhibitors and increased risk of pulmonary complications of Covid -19. Some researchers suspect that the Covid-19 may be able to enter lung cells by the ACE receptors.

Shown is the initial entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into cells, primarily type II pneumocytes, after binding to its functional receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). After endocytosis of the viral complex, surface ACE2 is further down-regulated, resulting in unopposed angiotensin II accumulation. Local activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system may mediate lung injury responses to viral insults. ACE denotes angiotensin-converting enzyme, and ARB angiotensin-receptor blocker. (N Engl J Med 2020; 382:1653-1659)

Vitamin D may positively implact the receptor ACE2. This study, report clear correlation between the high death rate with low vitamin D levels in Covid infected patients. There are limitation to this study that the attached abstract outlines.

Our take home message would be to please make sure you have updated labs and that you are all taking the recommended Vitamin D based on your surgical anatomy and laboratory values, not just an average non-bariatric person recommended dose.

https://www.dssurgery.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/manuscript.pdf

Fat Soluble Vitamins

April 26, 2020 10:20 am

Written By: Maria Vardapetyan, Eric Baghdasaryan, Osheen Abnous

Vitamins are chemicals that facilitate many processes in the human body such as blood clot formation, good vision, fight infections etc. There are two classes of vitamins. Water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins. Water soluble vitamins dissolve in water. This makes it possible for them to be absorbed through all mucous membranes. Fat soluble vitamins on the other hand do not dissolve or pass through mucous membranes. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed in the intestine along with fats in the diet. These vitamins have the ability to be stored in the fat tissues of the human body. Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body and have to be taken in daily with the food and dietary supplements. Solubility of a vitamin is not a function of its physical state. There are fat soluble vitamins that have a liquid form and almost all of the water soluble vitamins come in form of pills or powders.

In this article, we are going to focus on fat soluble vitamins. They are all complex molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in different arrangements (see figures 1, 2, 3 and 4). These fat soluble vitamins are vitamin A, D, E and K.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A has a major role in vision, immune function, cell growth, and maintenance of organs such as heart, kidneys, lungs, etc. It plays a pivotal role in the health of our eyes, specifically the retina1. Rhodopsin protein, a major protein that has the leading role in the process of vision, is found in the retina where it allows us to perceive light. This protein requires vitamin A to function properly. Without vitamin A, rhodopsin cannot sense light and thus cannot initiate the process by which vision occurs.

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Figure 1: Chemical structure of Vitamin A molecule

 

Vitamin D

Vitamin D regulates different chemical reactions that are associated with bones, muscles, and the immune system. The simplified way it does this regulation is it helps absorb calcium from dietary nutrients which in turn strengthens the bones, helps neurons exchange signals to move muscles and helps the immune system to fight against viruses and bacteria2. 

pastedGraphic_1.pngFigure 2: Chemical structure of Vitamin D molecule

Vitamin E

Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant. Antioxidants are naturally occurring chemicals that neutralize toxic byproducts of many chemical reactions in the human body. When food is consumed and digested, the human body converts it into energy. As a result of metabolism free radicals (toxic byproducts) are formed and are neutralized with the help of vitamin E. In addition, free radicals are also in the environment. Furthermore, vitamin E stimulates the immune system to fight against bacteria and viruses3.

pastedGraphic_2.pngFigure 3: Chemical structure of Vitamin E molecule

Vitamin K

Vitamin K can be obtained from food and dietary supplements. There are two forms of vitamin K: phylloquinone (Vitamin K1), which is found in spinach, kale and other greens and menaquinone-4 (Vitamin K2), which is found in animal products. Vitamin K1 is involved in blood clotting, and Vitamin K2 is involved in bone tissue building. Vitamin K1 is the main Vitamin K in human diet (75-90% of all vitamin K consumed), however, it is poorly absorbed in the body4,5. 

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Figure 4: Chemical structures of Vitamin K1 and K2 molecules

Absorption of fat soluble vitamins

Polarity describes the inherent charge(positive or negative) or lack of charge for any given substance or molecule.  Molecules that are charged are referred to as “polar”, while those that lack charge are “nonpolar”. When discussing solubility, it is important to remember the phrase “like dissolves like”. That means polar (charged) substances like to interact with a polar environment like water, since water contains a slight negative charge. Hence, charged substances are water-soluble. Nonpolar substances on the other hand readily interact with nonpolar environments such as fat, which contains no charge. Therefore, molecules that lack a charge such as vitamins A, D, E, and K are referred to as fat soluble. 

 

Due to their water fearing nature, these fat soluble vitamins cannot simply be absorbed directly into the bloodstream (which is mostly water) like the sugars and amino acids in our diet. As their name suggests, these fat soluble vitamins like to be embedded in fatty droplets, which facilitate their absorption in the following way. Fat soluble vitamins group together with other fat molecules to form fatty droplets, effectively reducing the amount of interaction with the watery environment of the intestines. Therefore, without an adequate amount of fat in your diet, your body is unable to effectively absorb these fat-soluble vitamins. This may be true in an intact anatomy, however, post weight loss surgical patients can not increase their fat soluble vitamin levels by increasing their fat intake. This is due to the fact that a high fat diet causes excessive bowel movement which in turn washes away any vitamins taken by mouth. DS limits fat absorption (thus the great weight loss) which can cause vitamin A and D deficiency that can not be easily corrected with oral supplementation.

As mentioned before, fat soluble vitamins are hydrophobic and nonpolar, which means they are also fat loving or lipophilic. Excess fat soluble vitamins can be stored in the liver and fat tissue. Therefore, these vitamins do not need to be eaten every single day since stores of these vitamins can sustain a person for some time. It may take several weeks or months for our body to deplete these stores of fat soluble vitamins which is why it generally takes a longer amount of time for fat soluble vitamin deficiencies to manifest themselves. The ability to store these fat soluble vitamins in tissues can also lead to vitamin toxicity – marked by an excess of vitamin stores in our body. 

Clinical manifestations of A, D, E, K deficiency

Vitamin Clinical Deficiency manifestations
Vitamin A Vision Problems

Night blindness 

Dryness of the eye

Vitamin D Softening and weakening of the bones

Decreased bone formation 

Bone shape distortion

Bowed legs (generally in children)

Hypocalcemia 

Vitamin E Damage to red blood cells 

Tissue/organ damage due to inability to supply enough blood

Vision problems

Nervous tissue malfunction

Vitamin K1  Excessive bruising

Increased bleeding time

Small blood clots under nails

Increased bleeding in mucous membrane

Vitamin K2  Weak bones

Increased plaque deposits along gumline

Arterial calcification

 

 

References

  1. Office of Dietary Supplements – Vitamin A. NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminA-HealthProfessional/#. Accessed April 26, 2020.
  1. Office of Dietary Supplements – Vitamin D. NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-Consumer/. Accessed April 26, 2020.
  1. Office of Dietary Supplements – Vitamin E. NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminE-Consumer/. Accessed April 26, 2020.
  1. Vitamin K. The Nutrition Source. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/vitamin-k/. Published July 2, 2019. Accessed April 26, 2020.
  1. Beulens JWJ, Booth SL, van den Heuvel EGHM, Stoecklin E, Baka A, Vermeer C. The role of menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in human health. The British journal of nutrition. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23590754. Published October 2013. Accessed April 26, 2020.

Why Oxygenation in Covid-19 is a major problem

April 21, 2020 7:27 am

Covid-19 is a respiratory virus. The majority of patient may experience no or minimal symptoms. But small subset of those infected will unfortunately progress to have significant pulmonary dysfunction. Some will even require mechanical ventilation. Oxygenation in COVID 19 patients with severe symptoms is altered. This is the due to the changes caused by the virus.

Normal Physiology

Oxygen (O2) is exchanged with Carbon Dioxide(CO2) in the lungs. The CO2 is exhaled and the O2 is taken up by the blood. This high O2 continuing blood is then pumped to every single organ. With complete distribution network of capillary vessels, every cell then gets access to the O2 rich blood. Hemoglobin is the carrier that transports the O2.

The O2 is removed and dissociated from the Hgb  depends on a number of variables.  Each red cell Hgb has four binding site for the oxygen. The  affinity and strength of each one of those four units for oxygen changes based on a number variables. These are CO2, Acidity (PH), DPG and temperature.

Model of 2,3 DPG

Oxygen Dissociation Curve

The oxygen dissociation curve has a long “S” shape. On the low end of oxygen in the blood most of the Hgb site are occupied. As the oxygent level increase there is little change to the saturation.


Normally the relationship of the blood in the lungs (horizontal axis) and the amount of the O2 in the red cell (vertical axis) is following the red line. When the amout of oxygen insired is 25mmhg  the blood saturation is at 50% (A). The blood saturation is nearly 100% when room air is inhaled (C). Room air has PO2 of  75mmHg.  Note that there is very little change in blood saturation (SaO2) by increasing the PO2 from 75 to 100 mmHg (the red line is horizontal between 75-100).

Another way to look at this: If you increase the PO2 from 25 to 50 (doubling)  the Saturation goes from 50 (A) to nearly 85(B). Whereas increaseing the PO2 from 50 to 100 (doubling) only mober the Saturation from 85(B) to 100(C). This shows the efficiancy of system to be able to deliver the most amout of oxygen to the tissue even with the low level of oxygen present in the lungs.

As the Green and the Blue lines demosntrate the balance can change by changes in CO2, Acidity (PH), DPG and temperature.

COVID-19

When it comes to COVID-19 illness there may be a number of factors in play. Most patients with pre-existing conditions already have changes that may shift the curve to the right (high fever and high Co2). Furthermore, obesity, asthma and other conditions may decrease the ability to clear the lungs of secretions and mucus may contribute to decreased oxygenation. Additionally, there is significant inflammation associated with the chemicals released in COVID-19 (cytokines). These can cause devastating changes to the ability to exchange oxygen in the lungs.

Oxygenation in COVID-19 severely symptomatic patient can deprive oxygen from organ. This can  progress to organ failure.  One of the most common organ systems to fail is the kidneys which may require dialysis.

Diabetes and Weight Loss Surgery

April 06, 2020 5:51 am

The scientific literature is riddled with evidence pointing to the benefit of early metabolic surgery as a superior treatment, remission and possible cure option for diabetes.  Unfortunately, the medical education, pharmaceutical companies, primary care healthcare delivery systems and third party payers (health insurance companies) have not caught up with the published data. The American Diabetes Association has changed their guidelines to reflected the benefit for combating diabetes with weight loss surgery.

There is ample evidence of the superior outcome of surgery as a treatment option for diabetes when compared to medical managment. Cummings et.al, in a published article in Diabetes Care, showed sustained stabilization of the Hemoglobin A1C six years after surgery. In contrast, there was no significant changes noted in the non-surgical group.

 

 

Jans et.al. , in November of 2019 showed that the patients who had NOT been on Insulin,  and had metabolic surgery had the highest long term success for resolution and remission of the diabetes. This identifies that having a patient be proactive in their care by having metabolic surgery improves success rates.

 

The exact mechanism by which the diabetes is resolved is unclear. The weight loss may play a role. There are numerous hormones and neuroendocrine modulators which control the complex metabolic pathways. Batterham et.al., in Diabetes Care (2016),  published a summary overview of the possible mechanism involved in diabetes improvement following metabolic surgery.

 

Neuroendocrine pathways involved with regulation of blood sugars.

 

There are a number of overlapping and sequential layers for possible reasons why diabetes resolves after weight loss/metabolic surgery. These may be directly related to surgery and the reduction of the calorie intake or absorption. It may also involve the neuroendocrine modulators.

 

What can be said definitively is that early surgical intervention is best and most likely the only permanent solution to type II diabetic resolution. There is no medical justification in not considering metabolic surgery in diabetic patients who may also have difficulty with meaning a BMI< 35.

Medication Absorption After Weight Loss Surgery

March 30, 2020 8:01 am

Weight loss surgical procedures, in one form or another, achieve the desired effect of weight loss by altering absorption of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. This results in decreased total absorption of required calories.

An unintended consequence is the altered absorption of medications. Frequently I am asked about the specific medication. Usually the answer is vague since the information is limited on specific medications. If the desired effect is not achieved, then it is probably  not being absorbed well. Specially, if the same dose of the same medication working well before surgery.

There is a summary article about the Theoretical absorption pattern of different weight loss surgical procedures.

Osteoporosis Medications

March 28, 2020 7:22 pm

There are a number of lectures, posting that we have done over the years on this topic. However the questions of osteoporosis medications and their benefits and risks comes up often.

The links are attached:

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis Medications, Action and Side Effects

Here is an updated list of medication that I had previously published. I made some clarification to explain how the medications work. There are different classes of medications and the detail of the action and soda effects were described earlier at a blog post.

List of medications that effect bone health.

The table is obtained from https://www.nof.org site.

 

Vitamin D Metabolism and Deficiency file

March 28, 2020 8:17 am

It’s important to understand Vitamin D metabolism and deficiency potential following weight loss surgery Vitamins after DS need to be followed via laboratory blood studies. There are basic vitamin needs but individual needs should be based on medical history, genetics, alimentary limb length, common channel length and other surgical and physiologic determinations. Vitamins after DS are a life long commitment as well as protein needs and hydration. Duodenal Switch is a malabsorptive procedure which requires at least yearly laboratory blood studies, daily vitamins/minerals, daily high protein and daily hydration intake. There is not an all in one vitamin that is adequate for a DS patient or tailored to your individual needs. (example: you may need more Vitamin D and less Vitamin A if you are taking a all-in-one vitamin you can’t get more of one and less of another vitamin)

DS patients are recommended to take Dry forms (water miscible form) of Vitamin A, D3, E, K due to the fat malabsorption after DS. Dry formulations by Biotech are processed so they can be absorbed by a water soluble method after the DS procedure. Vitamin D seems to be the vitamin that can become deficient the easiest, followed by Vitamin A. Take these vitamins away from dietary fat.

In some cases, patients may need injectable Vitamin A or D to improve vitamin levels.

Click the links to view the information below and within the comments of this file:
Vitamin D3 50 by Biotech:  Amazon
directly from BioTech:

Many DS surgeon’s do not recommend Children’s vitamins or chewable vitamins unless there is a specific reason or need for them.
DS Surgeon Blog on Vitamin D:
Webinar on Vitamin D metabolism:
Medications that effect Bone health:
This does not constitute medical advice, diagnosis or prescribing. It is simply a compiled list of gathered information. If you are in doubt or have questions please contact your medical healthcare professional.

Articles

March 22, 2020 6:57 pm

We have added a new section of compiled articles to our website. This page will allow us to compile sicentific articles all in one place for easy reference. The page allows the reader to search for articles based on the subject matter. We will continue to add to this list of article as new ones become available.