A Parathyroid scan or Sestamibi scan may be needed if the typical weight loss surgical reasons for elevated PTH levels have been addressed. Sestamibi is a small protein which is labeled with the radio-pharmaceutical technetium-99. This very mild and safe radioactive agent is injected into the veins of a patient with overactive parathyroid and is absorbed by the overactive parathyroid gland. If the parathyroid is normal it will not absorb the agent. The scan below shows the uptake of the agent.
Calcium, Vitamin D and Parathyroid hormone are routinely measured on yearly follow up for most post weight loss surgical (WLS) patients. Elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) may be caused by Vitamin D deficiency or calcium deficiency (most common in post WLS) or by over active parathyroid gland(s). In the latter case, if one of the four glands is overactive then this is knows as a parathyroid Adenoma. If all 4 are over active and are secreting too much PTH, this is known as hyperplasia. Ultrasound of the neck, may identify an enraged parathyroid gland (adenoma) which is located behind the thyroid gland. Given the large area where the parathyroid gland may be located, additional tests are needed to not only identify the location of the gland(s) but also to distinguish between single gland (adenoma) or multiple glands (hyperplasia) cause for the elevated PTH. It is important to investigate all avenues and testing in parathyroid hormone elevation and in some cases, not to rely on one test for your diagnosis. It is also imperative that weight loss surgical patients take their supplements routinely and consistently and have their laboratory studies followed at least yearly.
Vitamin K1 is a found in dark green leafy vegetables, asparagus, brussels sprouts, some grains, olive oil, prunes, soy bean oil, and canola oil. The body has limited storage capacity for Vitamin K and uses a recycle system to reuse it.
Vitamin K1 is a fat-soluble vitamin that after Duodenal Switch is not as easily absorbed due to the limiting contact of the food product with the bile until the common channel. Bile is needed to absorb fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins.
Duodenal Switch patients in need of Vitamin K1 supplements should take “Dry” or water miscible type of Vitamin K1, such as Biotech brand. The patients laboratory studies will determine if a patient requires Vitamin K1 supplement. Duodenal Switch patients should have laboratory studies drawn and evaluated at least on a yearly basis. Vitamin K works in a delicate balance with other supplements and should be monitored by a physician, in at risk people.
Vitamin K1 is most know for it’s coagulation effect and the clotting cascade. Vitamin K1 works with calcium and proteins in order to accomplish coagulation synethesis. Care should be taken with Vitamin K supplementation and anti-coagulation (blood thinners) therapy. Please see your physician regarding any supplementation of Vitamin K and blood thinner medications.
A discovery of Vitamin K dependent proteins has led to research on Vitamin K1 in bone health. Bone matrix proteins, specifically osteocalcin, undergo gamma carboxylation with calcium much the way coagulation factors do; this process also requires Vitamin K. Osteocalcin is a Gla-protein that is regulated by Vitamin D. The calcium binding ability of osteocalcin requires several Vitamin K carboxylations to exert it’s effects on bone mineralization.
In adults, the causes of Vitamin K1 deficiency include the following :
Multiple abdominal surgeries
Long-term parenteral nutrition
Parenchymal liver disease
Inflammatory bowel disease
Medications: Antibiotics (cephalosporin), cholestyramines, warfarin, salicylates, anticonvulsants, Cefamandole, cefoperazone, salicylates, hydantoins, rifampin, isoniazid, barbiturates, and certain sulfa drugs, higher Vitamin E can antagonized Vitamin K)
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) – Severe
Chronic kidney disease/hemodialysis
Additional information: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminK/
As always, discuss with your physicians and/or surgeon any changes in medications and supplements. This is not meant to be an all inclusive discussion of Vitamin K.