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Category: parathyroid hormone

Osteoporosis Medications, Action and Side Effects

May 25, 2019 3:40 pm

Recently I had a short live presentation on the subject of osteoporosis, osteoporosis medications, and the treatment options of this deteriorating bone condition. A patient who has had a bone scan may be diagnosed with Osteopenia and/or Osteoporosis. This information is usually conveyed by the forms of a Low T score. Both of these indicated demineralization of the bones, and the end result is  worsening of the bone structure. This leads to weaker bones and higher chance of fracture due to stress or trauma.

Treatment options should be approached is a global and systemic fashion. It is critical that the nutritional status is at its best possible and optimized for important healthy bone vitamins and minerals. Low protein needs to be corrected. Special attention should be given to nutrients, minerals and vitamins. These include ProteinCalcium, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Vitamin K1/K2to name a few.

Healthy bones require ongoing and routine force in the form of exercise to remain health. Just as exercise improves muscle strength, it also improves bone health. Exercise is also critical in improving bone structure and density. Ideally, exercise should be weight bearing and resistance.  Examples include: hiking, walking, jogging, climbing stairs, playing tennis, and dancing. Resistance type exercise is weight lifting and resistance bands.  These exercise work by creating a pull or force on the bone either by gravity, movement or weight.  Always check with your physician before beginning an exercise routine, start slowly and building up to longer periods of time.  The ideal goal would be at least 30 minutes a day, every day, if you are able.

We frequently see patients immediately started on osteoporosis medications without checking or improving some of the nutritional markers noted above or without looking at exercise history. In some case, the medication recommended are contraindicated due to nutritional status.

The medications can be grouped in to those  that help with new bone formation (Anabolic agents) or those that help by suppressing the bone breakdown phase (Antiresorptive agents).

Groups of Medication

 

National Osteoporosis Foundation has an exhaustive list (below) of medications for treatment of Osteoporosis.

The table below outlines the side effects and mechanism of the actions of the common medications used for treatment of  osteoporosis which was published by the University Health News Publication on August of 2014.

Mechanism Of Action And Side Effects

 

With all this information, the few points to remember is that the most important factors in healthy bone structure are the nutritional status Protein, Calcium, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Vitamin K1 levels.

This is an animation of normal bone Metabolism. It shows how bone structures is taken down and rebuilt continuously. This allows for a healthy bone maintainence as we age. The key is the balance of breakdown (osteoclast) and the build up (osteoblast) activity is regulated. Osteoporosis develops when there is more breakdown that build up.

With permission of Dr. Susan Ott of University of Washington.

Additional information available on her site.

Past blogs on Bone Health.

Parathyroid Scan

July 09, 2018 11:48 am

A Parathyroid scan or Sestamibi scan may be needed if the typical weight loss surgical reasons for elevated PTH levels have been addressed. Sestamibi is a small protein which is labeled with the radio-pharmaceutical technetium-99. This very mild and safe radioactive agent is injected into the veins of a patient with overactive parathyroid and is absorbed by the overactive parathyroid gland. If the parathyroid is normal it will not absorb the agent. The scan below shows the uptake of the agent.

Calcium, Vitamin D and Parathyroid hormone are routinely measured on yearly follow up for most post weight loss surgical (WLS) patients. Elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) may be caused by Vitamin D deficiency or calcium deficiency (most common in post WLS) or by over active parathyroid gland(s). In the latter case, if one of the four glands is overactive then this is knows as a parathyroid Adenoma. If all 4 are over active and are secreting too much PTH, this is known as hyperplasia. Ultrasound of the neck, may identify an enraged parathyroid gland (adenoma) which is located behind the thyroid gland. Given the large area where the parathyroid gland may be located, additional tests are needed to not only identify the location of the gland(s) but also to distinguish between single gland (adenoma) or multiple glands (hyperplasia) cause for the elevated PTH. It is important to investigate all avenues and testing in parathyroid hormone elevation and in some cases, not to rely on one test for your diagnosis. It is also imperative that weight loss surgical patients take their supplements routinely and consistently and have their laboratory studies followed at least yearly.

Parathyroid Scan

August 6, 2014 Group Meeting Recap

August 08, 2014 6:35 pm

August’s group meeting/webinar topic was Vitamin D.  Dr. Keshishian will be adding the voice over to the slides and it will be uploaded to  when it’s completed.  But in the meantime here are some highlights. Webinar here.

Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin has many important functions including bone health, cardiovascular health, blood glucose regulation, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, muscle function, respirator function, brain development and health, and immune function.  There are several very large studies investigating other functions of Vitamin D.  Vitamin D knowledge is in the midst of huge changes due to these upcoming studies.

Vitamin D metabolism is a complicated process whether via photo conversion in the skin or supplementation. Either way Vitamin D metabolism requires cholesterol to be converted to its active form.  The fat-solubility is the primary reason for deficiency after Doudenal Switch, due to malabsorption of fat needed for conversion of Vitamin D. The Parathyroid gland helps to regulate absorption of Vitamin D.  It is an inverse mechanism, meaning a high Parathyroid level signals more absorption of Vitamin D and calcium also.

August 6, 2014 Group Meeting Recap
August 6, 2014 Group Meeting Recap

Vitamin D deficiency is a World Health Organization priority. There are several causes some related to sunscreen use, disease processes, WLS, cola intake, diet related and medications.  These can compound Vitamin D deficiencies.

August 6, 2014 Group Meeting Recap
August 6, 2014 Group Meeting Recap

Dr. Keshishian has new guide lines for Vitamin D levels.  Due to the changing research regarding Vitamin D these guidelines are changing.  There are some endocrinologists in Vitamin D research that are recommending even high standard of Vitamin D. DS patients should be well above the border of insufficient and sufficient due to underlining contributing facts for deficiencies and the lack of absorption. Parathyroid Hormone levels are inversely related.  High PTH level can indicate Vitamin D deficiency and increase need for calcium.  Calcium blood levels are not a good indicator of calcium  or Vitamin D needs as the body is efficient at maintaining Calcium blood levels by breaking down bone mass due to the critic bodies need for circulating calcium.

August 6, 2014 Group Meeting Recap
August 6, 2014 Group Meeting Recap

Supplementation options are as follows: Please note that most over the counter Vitamin D is not appropriate for DS absorption.  DS patients need to take “Dry” water miscible Vitamin D3. Please see the previous blog post regarding https://blog.dssurgery.com/2013/08/vitamin-d-and-dry-water-soluble.html for more information and pictures of this type of Vitamin D. Vitamin D is tied to several other nutrients for metabolism such as protein, calcium, magnesium, zinc and potassium.  Treatment for correcting iron deficiency and phosphorus intake counter act Vitamin D absorption as do other previous discussed dietary issues. Take oral Vitamin D supplements even if you are receiving injectable Vitamin D.

August 6, 2014 Group Meeting Recap
August 6, 2014 Group Meeting Recap

Be proactive in Vitamin D supplements by monitoring your yearly DS laboratory studies.  Please call the office with any questions.  If in need of Vitamin D injections please see the previous blog post for related research article and compounding  pharmacies.  Vitamin D injections are not common place.
Please take the Vitamin D injections post to your treating physician if you are unable to see Dr. Keshishian and are in need of Vitamin D injections. If your treating physician has any questions please let them know Dr. Keshishian is available to answer their questions.

Our food selections for the meeting where all high Vitamin D recipes.  Tuna stuff mushroom (Tuna for Vitamin D and mushrooms are a good source of zinc), crustless artichoke and spinach quiche ignore the part of the recipe for the crust and just bake in pie plate without the crust, Panna cotta with a strawberry balsamic compote and toasted flax seed and hemp hulls.   The panna cotta is made with milk or almond milk and gelatin which are all important in bone health.  Hemp hulls are a protein source as is the milk.

Strawberry Balsamic Compote taken from https://nomnompaleo.com
1/4 C balsamic Vinegar
2C hulled strawberries, thinly sliced
2 TBSP honey
1 TBSP fresh lemon juice
1tsp vanilla extract
1/4 tsp salt
In a sauce pan heat Balsamic vinegar until reduced by half and is a thick syrup.  Add the rest of ingredients and simmer over medium heat for 5-10 minutes. Remove pan from heat and use an immersion blender to puree some of the sauce.  The texture is to your liking, so puree as much or as little as you would like.  Store in a sealed container for up to a week or you can freeze it for long term  storage. This site also has a almond milk Panna Cotta but this is not the recipe use at the group meeting.

Panna Cotta Recipe
1/2 C 2% milk mix with 2 1/2 tsp of unflavored gelatin in a bowl to rehydrate the gelatin let sit for 5-10 minutes

In a medium saucepan mix
3 C 2% milk or whole milk
one vanilla bean split in half or 1 tsp vanilla extract
2 TBSP maple syrup
1 tsp salt
heat until steaming but not boiling, about 5-7 minutes.  Take off heat.

Mix 1/4C greek style yogurt into the milk and rehydrated gelatin. Then whisk about 1 C of hot milk mixture into the gelatin/milk. Add this mixture into pan of hot milk and whisk well.  Pour hot Panna Cotta mixture into ramekins.  Refrigerate until set, about 2 hours.

In a small frying pan toast 2 TBSP Flax seed and mix with 2 TBSP hemp hulls. Before serving top with Strawberry  Balsamic Compote and flax seed/hemp seed mixture to your taste.