Results for : "Vitamin D"
Many people with obesity face infertility issues and seek infertility treatment or procedures. A recent article linked Vitamin D status to improved success rate of IVF (in-vito fertilization) & ICSI (interacytoplasmic sperm injection) in The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. It is important to check Vitamin D status for infertility treatment.
Here are the researchers results:
- Of the 252 females that completed the ICSI cycle, 42% became pregnant (n = 108).
- The mean vitamin D status was significantly higher in the pregnant group compared to the non-pregnant group (17.74 ng/ml vs 9 ng/ml, respectively; p = < 0.01).
- Vitamin D status was positively associated with both pregnancy (p = 0.001) and endometrial thickness (p < 0.01).
- Higher vitamin D levels was associated with a 21% increase odds of clinical pregnancy (p < 0.05).
The researchers concluded,
“Deficiency of 25-OHD in females hinders the accomplishment of optimal endometrial thickness required for implantation of embryo after ICSI.”
Following weight loss surgery (WLS) there can be improvement of fertility and for that reason we recommend two forms of birth control methods during the first 18-24 months following WLS or until weight loss has stabilized for several months. This helps to ensure the best outcome and health for the mother and infant.
In our office we continue to stress the importance of Vitamin D3 for bone and dental health, pregnancy, breastfeeding and several auto-immune diseases. Vitamin D has also been shown to reduce pre-term birth Duodenal Switch patients require a dry water miscible form of Vitamin D3 due to the fat malabsorption of the DS procedure. There are several past blog posts on the topic of Vitamin D and it’s associated nutrients.
Thank you to Contributor: Mariam Michelle Gyulnazaryan
Vitamins are organic, essential nutrients that are necessary to keep your body in good health. Most vitamins must be obtained through diet because they cannot be synthesized in the body. However, the human body is able to make its own vitamin D in the skin through sun exposure or it can be obtained by food and supplements of Vitamin D3.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is responsible for regulating muscle contraction, immune function, bone health, and intestinal absorption of magnesium, calcium, phosphate, iron, and zinc. Good sources of Vitamin D include sun exposure, dairy products, fatty fish, fortified orange juice, cod liver oil, mushrooms, and supplements.
There are two types of Vitamin D: D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3 (cholecalciferol). Both types have the same mechanism of action, but different sources and kinetics.
Caption: Vitamin D sources
Ergocalciferol is easily obtained through Vitamin D-rich foods in normal anatomy. However, a post Duodenal Switch patient will have less absorption of Vitamin D via food due to fat malabsorption. Ergocalciferol is hydroxylated to ercalcidiol [25(OH)D2] in the liver. Its second hydroxylation takes places in the kidney, where it is converted to the active form of Vitamin D2 known as ercalcitriol [1,25(OH)2D2]. Now in it’s active form, Vitamin D2 can bind to the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and help the body where it’s needed.
In the epidermis of the skin, precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) forms cholecalciferol as a result of UVB radiation. Several factors such as increased skin pigmentation, age, and sunscreen application reduce the skin’s production of choleciferol (6). Cholecalciferol is hydroxylated in the liver to become calcidiol [25(OH)D3]. It is then moved to the kidney for further hydroxylation to Vitamin D3’s active form known as calcitriol [1,25(OH)2D3], also called calcifediol. The active form allows binding to VDR for biological activity.
Both forms of Vitamin D have been shown to effectively increase 25(OH)D levels. Research shows that after administering a single dose of 50,000 international units (IU) Vitamin D2 or D3, both experienced a similar increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration. However, Vitamin D2 levels rapidly declined while Vitamin D3 levels remained high (1). Further studies have confirmed that Vitamin D3 is more effective in elevating and maintaining 25(OH)D levels for a longer amount of time (5). Scientists believe the most reasonable explanation for Vitamin D3’s substantial efficacy is its higher affinity to metabolites, which results in a longer circulating half-life than Vitamin D2 making it more potent(4). For a post Duodenal Switch patient, due to fat malabsorption, it is important to use “Dry” Water Miscible form of Vitamin D3.
A 25-hydroxy Vitamin D blood test is the most accurate way to measure levels. A level between 20 ng/mL-50 ng/mL may be considered sufficient, however in our bariatric practice we would like to keep the levels in 60-80 ng/mL. It is worth nothing that recently the reference ranges was increase to 30-100 ng/mL. Treatments of Vitamin D deficiency include frequent sun exposure, fortified foods, supplements, and injectables. in addition to 50000IU of vitamin D on daily basis in emulsified (water soluble) formulary or unto 600,000IU in injection form. The parallel guide for adequate vitamin D supplementation is normalization of PTH levels. Monitoring these levels is imperative in a post bariatric patient.
In conclusion, studies have shown that Vitamin D2 and D3 are not interchangeable. Although they have comparable absorption, Vitamin D2 has a shorter duration of action which makes it less potent than Vitamin D3. Researchers have shown that neither form is harmful to treat Vitamin D deficiency, but they should not be considered bio-equivalent.
1. Armas LAG, Hollis BW, Heaney RP. Vitamin D2 is much less effective than Vitamin D3 in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2004; 89(11) 5387-5391.
2. Creighton D, Ignaszewski A, Francis G. Vitamin D: new d-fence against cardiovascular disease. BCMJ. 2012; 54(3) 136-140.
3. Holick MF, Schnoes HK, DeLuca HF. Identification of 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol, a form of Vitamin D3 metabolically active in the intestine. PNAS. 1971; 68(4) 803-804.
4. Hollis BW. Comparison of equilibrium and disequilibrium assay conditions for ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol and their major metabolites. J Steroid Biochem. 1984; 21(1) 81-86.
5. Houghton LA, Vieth R. The case against ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84 (4): 694-697.
6. Howick Mf, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM. Evaluation, treatment and prevention of Vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(7) 1911-1930.
7. Johal M, Levin A. Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone in general populations: understandings in 2009 and applications to chronic kidney disease. CJASN. 2009; 4(9) 1508-1514.
8. Tetley EA, Brule D, Cheney MC, Davis Cd, Esslingen KA, Fischer PWF, Friedl KE, Green-Finestone LA, Guenther PM, Klurfeld DM, L’Abbe MR, McMurry KY, Starke-Reed PE, Trumbo PR. Dietary reference intakes for Vitamin D: justification for a review of the 1997 values. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89(3) 719-727.
9. Tripkovic L, Lambert H, Hard K, Smith CP, Bucca G, Penson S, Chope G, Hypponen E, Berry J, Vieth R, Lanham-New S. Comparison of Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95(6) 1357-1364.
Injectable Vitamin D may be needed in some cases of Vitamin D deficiency or inability to increase Vitamin D level with oral supplements. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin. It plays an important role in bone metabolism and structure. It has also been found to affect the immune regulation, control off- inflammatory reactions, and also be involved in a number of broad cellular functions throughout the body. Until a few years ago, very little attention was given to vitamin D levels. More recently, we have realized that due to a number of factors, there is a tendency for vitamin D deficiency to be present in the U.S. adult population. This finding is even more pronounced and severe in overweight patients.
The recommended dose for vitamin D supplements is much larger today than it was a few years ago. For example, it is not too uncommon to recommend an average dose of a 50,000 (IU) international unit of vitamin D by mouth on a daily basis after the duodenal switch operation.
Since vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin, it is important that the appropriate type be utilized. Dry formulation of vitamin D is needed to ensure adequate absorption. There are a number of manufacturers that produce these. When searching for Dry Vitamin D the type a patient should be looking for is “Dry” D3-50. Some larger supplement manufacturer’s carry these products. The links to these manufacturers is located here. The “Dry” type of Vitamin D should NOT be taken with fatty or oily foods. Also to optimizes absorption they should be taken either 30 minutes prior to eating food or 30 minutes after eating.
If you are deficient in Vitamin D after trying “Dry” or water miscible Vitamin D then intramuscular Vitamin D injections might be an effective way to normalize your Vitamin D levels. Vitamin D can be formulated and purchased from any compounding pharmacies that are equipped and experienced in the interpretation of injectable vitamins and minerals. Your primary care WILL need to contact the compounding pharmacy of their choose for the recommendations and be willing to make the injections available to you. UNLESS you have been told to stop taking your daily “Dry” Vitamin D tablet supplement you should continue taking it after the injection.
We are supplying the following so that your PCP will understand the research behind injectable Vitamin D and to hopefully ensure that every patient is armed with this knowledge. Vitamin D deficiencies are becoming more common place in society due to the use of sunscreen and sun shielding clothing and hats, not only Duodenal Switch patients.
This is a research paper out of Finland that discusses injectable Vitamin D for the aged. The information can translate to anyone who finds themselves in a Vitamin D deficit state. http://www.gwern.net/docs/nootropics/1992-heikinheimo.pdf
This research paper is out of Australia where despite then sun drenched climate they are experiencing a large amount of people with Vitamin D deficiencies due to sunscreen, veiling, malabsorption, etc.
Below find the order sheet with the Injectable Vitamin D concentration listed. The common dosing for the vitamin D is 600,000 IU, deep IM every 6 months till the levels are normalized. The patient then can take the oral supplements only.
Finally, this is an except from an another Australian research paper describing the use of Megadoses of injectable Vitamin D in patients after Biliopancreatic Diversion which has a malabsorptive component similar to Duodenal Switch.
Just as a reminder, we have no financial interest in any of the vendors that are recommended on our website. Also note, that this is not in any form or fashion a substitute for an evaluation by your primary care physician or your surgeon. This is for information only, and is not to be taken as a recommendation for any particular patients’ condition.
Injectable Vitamin A and Vitamin D can improve vitamin status post weight loss surgery. One of the common side effect of all weight loss surgical procedures is nutritional and/or mineral deficiencies. Patients undergoing weight loss surgical procedures are always instructed to supplement their diet with multivitamin, calcium, iron, vitamin D and other supplements or minerals. If you do not take your supplements regularly you can become deficient. The symptoms associated with vitamin A deficiency is night blindness. Chronic vitamin D deficiency may result in low calcium, osteoporosis and other health-related issues.
Vitamin A and vitamin D, both fat-soluble vitamins, are absorbed by duodenal switch patients only if taken and a dry formulation. An alternative to oral supplement, would be injectable form of these two vitamins. Both of these vitamins can be formulated and purchased from compounding pharmacies that are equipped and experienced with the interpretation of injectable vitamins and minerals. Your primary care WILL need to contact the pharmacy of their choice for the recommendations and be willing to make the injections available to you.
We will gladly be able to provide injectable Vitamin A and Vitamin D for patients whose data laboratory studies are available to us and see us in the office.
We will not be able to provide prescriptions for injectable vitamins to be sent to your primary care or other physicians to provide the injections.
Vitamin D supplement has been discussed previously in my Blog .
The common dosing for the vitamin D is 600,000 IU, deep IM every 6 months till the levels are normalized. The patient then can take the oral supplements only.
Vitamin A supplements was also discussed in my Blog.
The common dosing for injectable vitamin A is 50,000 IU, deep IM every 6 months till the blood levels are corrected, and the patient symptoms are resolved.
Central Drugs Compounding Pharmacy 562-691-6754 , Located in La Habra, California can provide both injectable Vitamin A and D with a prescription and sent to your physician.
Just as a reminder, we have no financial interest in any of the vendors that are recommended on our website. Also, note that this is not in any form or fashion a substitute for an evaluation by your primary care physician or your surgeon. This is for information only, and is not to be taken as a recommendation for any particular patients’ condition.
Walking out into the daylight we sometimes complain about the sun’s rays hit our eyes or burning our skin. Most people overlook the importance of the sun, for they are unaware of its benefits. Vitamin D is a natural resource produced from the ultraviolet light waves from the sun hitting our skin. As a result, this allows normal bone growth and development to take place. In addition, vitamin D can be found in various foods, such as seafood and milk. Also, vitamin D’s main function is to maintain consistent levels of calcium and phosphorus.
What are the major sources of vitamin D?
The major sources are food and exposure to sunlight. Important food sources are:
- Fortified foods with major dietary sources of vitamins and minerals. For example, Milk in the United States is reinforced with 10 micrograms (400 IU) of vitamin D per quart.
- Fatty fish and fish oils.
Exposure to sunlight is an important source of vitamin D as well. Ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight generate vitamin D composition in the skin. There is some evidence that the body can make 10,000 iu to 25,000 iu in a single short sun exposure if the sunlight is adequate and appropriate amount of skin is exposed.
What is Vitamin D’s function? Calcium and phosphorus are two vital minerals which are constantly controlled and conserved by vitamin D in our bodies. Calcium is responsible for managing our body’s bones and keeping them stable. In addition to keeping our bones healthy, phosphorus assists with keeping nerves and muscles working together efficiently. In many countries, such as Alaska where sunlight is scarce, many people develop skeletal deformities, or muscular vulnerability. Without vitamin D, bones can become brittle and soft, also known as rickets.
Lack of Vitamin D Minimal amount or deficiencies are major causes of rickets and osteomalacia. An absence of vitamin D develops when dietary intake is insufficient, little exposure to sunlight, the kidneys not modifying it to its active form, or when the individual isn’t capable of absorbing vitamin D from the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, Americans over the age of 50 may be at risk of deficiency because the ability of skin to manipulate vitamin D into its active form slows as we grow older. As a result of various diseases the reduction of a person’s ability to absorb dietary fat decreases. Also, the kidneys which convert vitamin D to its malleable form decrease in efficiency as well. This is a brief over view of the many functions and uses of this important vitamin. Over the last few years there has been a wealth of information that has been published.
Excess Vitamin D Too much vitamin D can cause nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, constipation, weakness in fatigue, pain in the bones and weight loss. Also, vitamin D stimulates the formation of kidney stones, stiffening of soft tissue, and rise in blood levels of calcium. It is however realize that being that vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin, it is very hard, if not impossible to get excessive amount of calcium after Duodenal switch operation. In order to avoid this very rare complication, patients on Vitamin D supplements should have their Vitamin D 25-OH levels check regularly.
Difference between D2 and D3 Vitamin D is present in two forms, cholecalciferol (D3) and Ergocalciferol (D2). D2 is manufactured by plants or fungus. D3 is formed by the body as a result of sunlight exposure and to some degree by animal products. Other differences about them is that D3 has a longer shelf life, and D2 can be toxic in most patient at high doses. Most of the beneficial effects of the Vitamin D have been contributed to D3. Further discussion here.