Tag: post operative diet
Protein intake requirements change over time following weight loss surgery. This is based on the requirements imposed on our body by a number of variables. These include, activity level, muscle mass, over all health condition to name a few.
A very young muscular athletic male with a BMI or 30 will require much higher protein intake (and absorption) that an inactive older Female with the same BMI. The same young athletic male will require much higher protein intake is he is recovering from a surgery than his baseline.
As we have stated in the past, the protein intake, should be adequate and not excessive. High level of protein intake that are not accounted for based on muscle mass and activity level, will eventually result in weight gain. The best measure of protein intake in a stable weight patient over 3-4 years post op is their albumin and protein level. Following your yearly laboratory values at a minimum is an important part of weight loss surgery follow up care.
You also need to adjust protein intake when necessary. Protein needs increase depending on physical needs, infection, healing, pregnancy, surgery, age, injury, etc. Plastic surgery requires higher protein needs for appropriate healing.
Information on protein sources and quality here.
The basic formula for protein intake is 1gm/kg of ideal body weight. The calculator below will provide a guide for the protein into based on your stable weight in lbs.
A Parathyroid scan or Sestamibi scan may be needed if the typical weight loss surgical reasons for elevated PTH levels have been addressed. Sestamibi is a small protein which is labeled with the radio-pharmaceutical technetium-99. This very mild and safe radioactive agent is injected into the veins of a patient with overactive parathyroid and is absorbed by the overactive parathyroid gland. If the parathyroid is normal it will not absorb the agent. The scan below shows the uptake of the agent.
Calcium, Vitamin D and Parathyroid hormone are routinely measured on yearly follow up for most post weight loss surgical (WLS) patients. Elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) may be caused by Vitamin D deficiency or calcium deficiency (most common in post WLS) or by over active parathyroid gland(s). In the latter case, if one of the four glands is overactive then this is knows as a parathyroid Adenoma. If all 4 are over active and are secreting too much PTH, this is known as hyperplasia. Ultrasound of the neck, may identify an enraged parathyroid gland (adenoma) which is located behind the thyroid gland. Given the large area where the parathyroid gland may be located, additional tests are needed to not only identify the location of the gland(s) but also to distinguish between single gland (adenoma) or multiple glands (hyperplasia) cause for the elevated PTH. It is important to investigate all avenues and testing in parathyroid hormone elevation and in some cases, not to rely on one test for your diagnosis. It is also imperative that weight loss surgical patients take their supplements routinely and consistently and have their laboratory studies followed at least yearly.
Our practice has long discouraged the consumption of diet soda and carbonated sugary beverages for anyone, but especially our weight loss surgical patients. These products’ detrimental effects on bone health, gut microbiome, increase appetite, diarrhea, inhibited weight loss and regain shouldn’t be ignored. In addition, in the situation of limited space post Bariatric surgery, a WLS patient needs nutrient rich, protein foods. These beverages provide no nutritional value.
In addition, these products are also not recommended for non-WLS patients. Oral health, peak in insulin levels, increase weight gain, increased Type 2 DM, and diarrhea are also issues that can effect patients in addition to the above issues.
Our practice, as well as a recent article on Medical News Today Written by Jon Johnson, encourages people to:
“Saying goodbye to diet soda
Soda, whether regular or diet, is a dietary waste. Sodas have little nutrients, and have a long list of side effects. For people with diabetes, diet soda has been associated with weight gain and symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Some sweeteners in diet soda even cause sugar and insulin spikes in the blood.”
We encourage the use of Stevia, which is a natural sweetener, instead of other artificial sweeteners. Stevia is a herb type plant with leave that can be used for sweetening. It has been used for many years in other countries and cultures. It contains Magnesium, Potassium, zinc, Vitamins A, B3 and C as well as fiber.
A past blog post on Carbonated Beverages and Weight loss Surgery .
Fat and Protein after weight loss surgery…. This is a subject that seems to come up all the time.
What I recommend is “…Water, protein, vitamins, supplements and every thing else….”
Dehydration can cause a lot of problems, stay hydrated.
Weight Loss Surgery (WLS) is a surgically imposed catabolic state (surgical induced starvation). The weight is lost by not allowing enough caloric intake/absorption and forcing the body rely on stored sources of energy, mostly fat mass. The rationale for the high protein intake is to minimize net muscle mass loss during the catabolic state. Low carbs and low fat further push the body into catabolizing the fat mass, and reducing the net loss of protein content. As the fat mass is broken down it will release hormones and other byproducts that the body will eliminate. Hydration is crucial to every bodily function and even more so in the weight loss phase to allow for elimination of some of these byproducts.
The mechanism by which Duodenal Switch works during the weight loss phase is by limiting the caloric intake. Long term Duodenal Switch keeps the weight off due to the malabsorptive component as the caloric intake increases. Protein intake, Vitamin/Mineral supplementation and diligence in surveillance of vitamin/mineral levels is imperative and a life long commitment after WLS.
There are a number of different types of Fatty Acids. Our bodies naturally produce, from other components, all but 2 essential fatty acids: Omega 3 and Omega 6. Most fatty acids require bile salts to be absorbed within the small intestines. Those are the fatty acids that are absorbed to a lesser degree after Duodenal Switch. Medium chained fatty acids do not require bile salts and can be absorbed into the blood stream from the small intestines. Medium chained fatty acids are used for energy as they are processed in the liver. Medium chained fatty acids are actually given to patients with Short Bowel Syndrome to decrease fatty stool and increase their body weight. This is also a possible reason some fats cause DS patients more loose stools and others do not (medium chained fatty acids). Adding fats is a purely individualized process. Each person has a different length of small bowel, alimentary limb, common channel, percentage of excess weight to lose and metabolism. Patient’s tolerance for fat in regards to vitamin/mineral levels, stool consistency and frequency is completely individualized.
Fats and Fatty acids can be divided according to their structure in groups:
A) Saturated Fat (animal fats, butter, lard- solid in room temperature)
B) Unsaturated Fat (liquid in room temperature)
The main focus in the weight loss phase should be hydration, hydration, hydration, protein, low carb, low fat and vitamin/mineral supplementation (page 22). Rest is key in the early post op phase but gradually adding exercise is also important in ensuring the body does not breakdown muscle mass. Adequate intake of protein and use of muscles diminishes the bodies natural response of breaking down muscle mass in a low caloric intake state.
Post Surgical Needs for the first 90 days in order of importance:
This is to allow healing to take place before adding additional stress on the body and surgical sites.
Minimum of 64 ounces of fluids daily
Minimum 80-100 grams of protein daily (protein requirements are based on ideal body weight)
30 gms by 30 days post-op
60 gms by 60 days post-op
90 gms by 90 days post-op
Rest (early Post-op)
Proteins are important, not only for structure (muscle) but for functions. We know that proteins and amino acids are involved in all aspects of our body’s function. This is even more critical during the rapid weight loss phase. Protein needs may increase and change based on health status, pregnancy, surgeries, healing, etc.
When it comes to fat, I do not recommend patients consuming excessive amounts of fat- At the same time I do not recommend patients go on a low fat diet. There is this misconception that since DS is causing fat and fat soluble vitamin malabsorption, then taking more fat (in excessive amounts) can solve the problem of vitamin deficiency. How about the possibility that some patients are causing their own vitamin deficiency by taking large volumes of fat which may results in more frequent bowel movements and decreased vitamin absorption.
It is not to be forgotten that each patient will respond differently with dietary changes after duodenal switch. Some patients may tolerate more and some less fat in their diet. After the initial 90 day post op phase I recommend that patients go slowly in adding new food items by giving it several days before adding another food item. i.e.; add carrots for 3-5 days to see how your body handles it before attempting to add another new item. The above is not the entire weight loss process or education and is only a small portion of the education needed before undergoing any WLS procedure. These recommendation are my recommendations for my patients with the Hess technique for Duodenal Switch.
When I perform the duodenal switch operation, the common channel is a percentage of the total small bowel length and I also account for the patient’s metabolic rate. Two individuals with a BMI of 50, should not have the same common channel. If we compare two patients, one of them is a 20 years old male who is 6’2″ and the second patient is a 60 year old female who is 5’4″, we can see how this applies. These two patients have very different metabolic needs and requirements. When the Duodenal Switch is performed in this fashion, the common channel based on a percentage of total small bowel length and metabolic needs, the patients post op diet works best when it is a well balanced, protein based diet. The basic principals are : Hydration (water), Protein and Everything else, low carb, avoid artificial sweeteners, avoid carbonated drinks, have frequent smaller meals and avoid processed food. Listen to you body as to what it tolerates and what it doesn’t. This is what I recommend for my patients.
I am not aware of any scientific evidence that proves any benefit to excessive amounts of fat for DS patients who have had their length of the common and alimentary bowels based as a percentage of the total length.
My recommendation are to have a well balanced high protein diet. I do not recommend a low fat diet, except in the healing phase after surgery. However, there is no reason to consume excessive amounts of fat long term.
High fat diet is used to facilitate bowel movements for some patients who have constipation. It may be prudent to try and identify what may be causing the constipation and correct or eliminate them before one resorts to a very high fat diet as a “treatment” for constipation after Duodenal Switch. The possible causes for constipation after duodenal switch may be metabolic-organic (where some patients have infrequent bowel movements before DS, hypothyroidism), length of the common and the Alimentary channels and medications (pain meds, narcotics, antidepressants).
In addition, Medium Chain Fatty Acids do not require bile salts to be absorbed and are directly absorbed into the Portal Vein in the liver. Medium Chain Fatty Acids are not malabsorbed post Duodenal Switch. Medium Chain Fatty Acids included Caproic acid, Caprylic acid, Capric acid, and Lauric acid. Commonly found in varying amounts within coconut oil and palm oil. MCT supplement is made with Medium Chain Fatty Acids.
In summary, I recommend that Duodenal Switch patients who have had surgery with our practice have a high protein balanced diet. I do not recommend avoiding fat, or going on a low fat diet. I am not sure if there a reason to consume excessive amount of fat, which may in fact have unexpected metabolic and nutrient consequences.
Every patient, as their weight stabilizes, will find what works and what does not work for them. Some patients will tolerate a higher fat intake and other will not be able to tolerate higher fat intake.