Female patients having weight loss surgery should use two forms of Birth control for 18 months after weight loss surgery. Depo shots are suppose to prevent ovulation for a prolonged period of time. An attractive aspect of it is once a patient get the injection, there is not need to worry about birth control till the next injection is due.
There have been a number of studies that have associated Depo shots with weight gain.
Below are three citations from pubmed
and the ACOG website.
Women tend to gain weight while on therapy with Depo-Provera CI. From an initial average body weight of 136 lb, women who completed 1 year of therapy with Depo-Provera CI gained an average of 5.4 lb. Women who completed 2 years of therapy gained an average of 8.1 lb. Women who completed 4 years gained an average of 13.8 lb. Women who completed 6 years gained an average of 16.5 lb. Two percent of women withdrew from a large-scale clinical trial because of excessive weight gain
Validity of perceived weight gain in women using long-acting reversible contraception and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate.
Division of Clinical Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
The objective of the study was to evaluate perceived weight gain in women using contraception and determine the validity of self-reported weight gain.
We analyzed data from new contraceptive method users who self-reported a weight change at 3, 6, and 12 months after enrollment. We examined a subgroup of participants with objective weight measurements at baseline and 12 months to test the validity of self-reported weight gain.
Thirty-four percent of participants (1407 of 4133) perceived weight gain. Compared with copper intrauterine device users, implant users (relative risk, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.51) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate users (relative risk, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.64) were more likely to report perceived weight gain. Women who perceived weight gain experienced a mean weight gain of 10.3 pounds. The sensitivity and specificity of perceived weight gain were 74.6% and 84.4%, respectively.
In most women, perceived weight gain represents true weight gain. Implant and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate users are more likely to perceive weight gain among contraception users.
The Danger of Depo
The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology reports that the worst offender is Depo-Provera, the contraceptive shot. Depo contains a synthetic hormone that keeps estrogen levels low, preventing the release of eggs. Women who used it were twice as likely as those who used nonhormonal contraceptives to become obese over three years, even after accounting for exercise and eating habits.
It is because of the above and other published reports that I recommend agains Depo shot as a means of birth control for patient who have or area considering weight loss surgery.