Category: internal hernia
Adhesions are fibrous bands of scar tissue that form during the healing process. Following surgery, many people live normally with this scar tissue. However, they are also the cause of bowel obstruction when the adhesions form in such a way that causes a segment of the bowel to either get trapped, or form a “knot”. In both of those cases, the end result is a partial narrowing or a complete blockage of the intestines. This is called bowel obstruction.
Without treatment, the blocked parts of the intestine can die, leading to serious issues. However, with prompt medical care, intestinal obstruction often can be successfully treated.
Other causes of bowel obstruction:
- In children, the most common cause of intestinal obstruction is telescoping of the intestine (intussusception).
- Intussusception telescoping of the interstine
- Hernias — portions of intestine that protrude into another part of your body
- Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease
- Diverticulitis — a condition in which small, bulging pouches (diverticula) in the digestive tract become inflamed or infected
- Twisting of the colon (volvulus)
- Impacted feces
- Colon Cancer
In patients who haven’t Bariatric / weight loss surgery or an untouched GI track, bowel obstruction may manifest itself by symptoms of loss of appetite, constipation, nausea, vomiting, enlarged abdomen, abdominal pain, cramping, with no passage of gas or bowel movements.
However, patients who have had a weight loss surgery (Duodenal Switch, or the Gastric Bypass) because of the parallel limbs of the small bowel, the symptoms outlined above may not present. The diagnosis of a bowel obstruction, when suspected, should be identified with CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with Oral and IV contrast. A CT scan with no oral contrast or water instead of oral contrast is inadequate and may lead to a delay in diagnosis and surgical intervention. Examples of Bowel Obstruction CT findings were discussed previously.
The treatment for an internal hernia and adhesions causing a bowel obstruction depending on the severity may range from observation to surgical intervention in order to release the small bowel from the constraints of the adhesions.
Whenever there is a bowel resection with anastomosis made there will be a defect in the mesentery (the tissue that holds the blood supply and the nerves etc going to and from the bowel) that needs to be closed. In this particular case, the stitches that were used to close the defect were intact and yet the tissue had separated from it. The result is an internal hernia. This can cause bowel obstruction, where by a loop of the bowel can go through the defect and kink the bowel causing the blockage. In some cases, the internal hernia may reduce itself with intermittent symptoms of the bowel obstruction and in other cases it may require immediate emergent surgery. A CAT scan with oral and IV contrast is needed after Duodenal Switch to visualize the alimentary and bioliopancreatic limbs.
Symptoms may include but are not limited to:
- abdominal bloating
- abdominal tenderness
- cramping abdominal pain
- diarrhea, constipation
- feeling of inability to completely empty bowels
- severe abdominal pain.