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March 22, 2020 6:57 pm

We have added a new section of compiled articles to our website. This page will allow us to compile sicentific articles all in one place for easy reference. The page allows the reader to search for articles based on the subject matter. We will continue to add to this list of article as new ones become available.

Length of Bowel : Hess or No Hess

March 22, 2020 5:58 pm

“…What is the length of my common channel” is probably one of the frequently asked questions about the duodenal switch operation in the office. This usually comes up at the initial consult when patients repost credible sources such as Dr. Google and Dr. Facebook for patient with different bowel length have done well or not so after duodenal switch operation. Dr. Hess described the Duodenal Switch by using total bowel length measurements and creating the common channel as a percentage of the total small bowel length.  However, it seems that this is being done less and less.

This leads to my explanation that is on the website

Hess calculator : Bowel Length Calculator

How the actual measurements matters: Bowel length video link

In 2019, Bekheit et.al published a very interesting study comparing total small bowel length (TSBL) to a number of variables such as height, weight, sex and BMI. They identified a few loose correlations. Male patient have longer TBSL than females. There was correlation between TSBL and height stronger in males than females but not statistically significant.

In Conclusion they reported ” Despite statistical significance of the correlation between the TSBL and the height and weight of the included participants, the correlation seems to have no clinical meaning since the effect size is negligible. ”

As I have previously discussed this  Making the common and alimentary length standard for every duodenal switch patient will make some loose too much and other not enough weight.

Figure 1 shows TSBL on the horizontal axis, and height, weight, BMI and Age on the vertical axis. For the most part what they all show is that one can not predict how long a patients bowel is by any of the measures that we take in the office as a part of the routine exam.

This raises, the concerns  that I had raised previously. How could two similar patients who have the same weight, age, sex and BMI have the same surgery and expect the same result if one of them has TSBL of 400 cm and the other one 800cm?


If both of the patients get the same “cookie cutter” duodenal switch with the same lengths, then the patient with TSBL of 400 will have much longer common channel if the surgeon does not customize the length of the bowel. This is an example of many patients whom we have revised over the years where they had a duodenal switch done with the “standard” 125cm common channel and when we measured the total length the patient had 500 cm TSBL.

Additional Links here.

Potential Treatment for Coronavirus-19

March 15, 2020 7:34 pm

There are a number of psosible medications (Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin) being reported in the literature. They are mostly small series and  not proven sicnetifically. Some of the medications that are being dicsused in the media infact have singificnat and deadly side effects. The use of these medications should be avoided until and unless some prelimeary data shows any imrpvoment There are numerous pathways and approaches being considered for both vaccines and medications for treatment of Cornoavirus-19. One of the approaches is to try to minimize and mute the inflammation that is caused by the virus entering the lung cells leading to destructive damage of the lung tissue. There are a number of medication in this class, however most of them has significant side effects. Baricitinib, a medication currently available for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis may be such a molecule.

Stapled Anastomosis

December 30, 2019 11:23 am

As I was looking over old archives, I came across the following pictures that were taken years ago. These were photographs taken to demonstrate the technique for the construction of the anastomosis of the biliopancreatic channel and alimentary channel of the Duodenal Switch.

The steps of doing the stapled anastomosis of the Duodenal Switch is generally unchanged during the laparoscopic approach to the procedure.

The fist step is to align the bowel to be joined.

The stitches are placed to secure the bowel together. Two small openings are made in each limb of the bowel to be stapled together (the biliopancreatic limb on the  bottom and the alimentary on the top of the image).

It is important to also align the bowel in the same peristalsis direction. This means that the contraction and the relaxation motion of the bowel should all point in the same direction. This should reduce the risk of complications such as intussusception.

The stapler is then fired in opposite directions to create wide anastomosis.

When the stapler is fired in opposite direction, a very wide anastomosis is created.

 

Closure
Closing the opening that was made

Once the anastomosis is created, then the last staple is used to close the opening that was made. This staple line is perpendicular to the direction of the anastomosis to avoid making the opening narrow.

We originally published this technique in 2003 on Obesity Surgery Journal.

Long Term Health Implications of PPI Use, Antacids

November 19, 2019 12:38 pm

The FDA had initially approved almost all PPI’s, and antacids with an explicit limit placed on the duration of the therapy, which ranged in days to weeks. At that time there were no long term studies done on the health benefits, or side effects of the long term use of the PPI.

This Summary Letter outlines all the concerns dating back to 2011. I have found the information in this letter a good overview of the supporting medical evidence and lack of any long term data in regards to long term PPI.

The FDA made changes in the Black Box warning of the PPI medications.  This was done with the mounting evidence and the health concerns of long term PPI use.

PPI’s have been shown to have detrimental long term side effects. It is prudent that a patient is continuously monitored and evaluated for identification of the possible underlying causes of the reflux, that may be the reason for the PPI use. There are a whole host of potential causes of reflux and other options for treatment.

There have been numerous studies recently published:

It can lead to increase risk of fractures and in a large study from the VA system it has been associated with the risk of premature death

Protein Intake

October 14, 2019 7:08 am

Protein intake requirements change over time following weight loss surgery. This is based on the requirements imposed on our body by a number of variables. These include, activity level, muscle mass, over all health condition to name a few.

A very young muscular athletic male with a BMI or 30 will require much higher protein intake (and absorption) that an inactive older Female with the same BMI. The same young athletic male will require much higher protein intake is he is recovering from a surgery than his baseline.

As we have stated in the past, the protein intake, should be adequate and not excessive. High level of protein intake that are not accounted  for based on muscle mass and activity level, will eventually result in weight gain. The best measure of protein intake in a stable weight patient over 3-4 years post op  is their albumin and protein level. Following your yearly laboratory values at a minimum is an important part of weight loss surgery follow up care.

You also need to adjust protein intake when necessary. Protein needs increase depending on physical needs, infection, healing, pregnancy, surgery, age, injury, etc. Plastic surgery requires higher protein needs for appropriate healing.

Information on protein sources and quality here.

The basic formula for protein intake is 1gm/kg of ideal body weight. The calculator below will provide a guide for the protein into based on your stable weight in lbs.