Category: nutritional deficiencies
You may have heard that I will be giving a lecture at the California Dental Association’s 2017 meeting. In preparation for the lecture, I have come across some excellent information with the assistance of and dental resources from Dr. Armen Mardirossian of Mardirossian Periodontics and Implants.
The following Dental Resources are part of many of the resources I have used to complete this lecture series for the Dental Association. Periodontal disease can effect every body system and should be addressed to avoid further damage and complications. We can not over emphasize the importance of good dental care. In addition, following weight loss surgery, supplementation of vitamins and minerals is extremely important. Always seek the care of a professional when dealing with dental issues or other physical symptoms.
We are sharing these resources with our patient population in order to shed some light on this topic. You can also find a previous webinar on the topic of Dental Issues After Weight Loss Surgery here.
Complete Dental Resources here (click on blue links)
Thank you Dr. Mardirossian for your assistance.
In 2015, I came into contact with the most unique, passionate, urgently responsive; talented beyond belief and caring surgeon I have ever met. Our oldest son who is a 21-year-old cancer survivor, has had nearly five years of medical nightmare as diagnosed with severe gastroparesis resultant from his vagal nerve being severed during a previous Nissen Fundoplication surgery. We didn’t find out that this had happened until nearly two years later and only after a 4 hour gastric emptying test showed that Cameron’s stomach was only about 30% emptied after four hours (should be empty after an hour) due to gastroparesis.
I had heard about Dr. Keshishian on a Bariatric support group page on which I post and get great advice. The surgeon back in Central, IL where we live told us that Cameron needed a subtotal gastrectomy to remove 80% of his stomach! This sounded radical and no way in the world was that going to happen. I was given Dr. Keshishian’s email address so I could consult with him for his advice. It was a Saturday morning around 7 AM Central time when I sent off an email to Dr. Keshishian detailing Cameron’s medical history and current issues. I was in hoping that his office would get the email on Monday and hopefully get back to me within a week. I went out to my kitchen to get a cup of coffee and when I returned I had a missed call with a California area code. Yep, it was Dr. Keshishian. I called back and we talked for 45 minutes. He suggested several things and told me that any good general surgeon in my area could do surgery on Cameron and fix him, well that was the only time he was wrong. We couldn’t find anyone in our area who would do the surgery.
So we talked and agreed that Cameron needed a Roux-en Y drain put in place to physically drain his stomach by way of gravity (not for any weight loss as very little small bowel was bypassed). Dr. Keshishian got us in the next week and we flew out to Glendale where he met with Cameron for an examination on that Monday. On Tuesday, Dr. Keshishian performed surgery to fix Cameron’s herniated diaphragm, loose Nissen wrap, performed the Roux-n Y limb and anastomosis to the stomach. Dr. Keshishian also found a Meckel’s diverticulum (a congenital small bowel defect that can cause internal bleeding and serious issues). The following Sunday, Cameron developed severe pain due to chronic pain from his Cancer treatment and 12 subsequent surgeries, many on his abdomen. Dr. Keshishian saw Cameron in the ER and spent 3 hours fixing Cameron’s pain issue and making sure he was medically sound so we could fly home the next day.
Today, Cameron has very little to no issues which you wouldn’t have believed possible six months earlier. In the past, he had violent retching, dry heaving and bad nausea daily which had him severely incapacitated and very depressed due to a feeling of hopelessness and pain from the Gastroparesis. He didn’t believe he had a chance at a normal life but Dr. Keshishian gave Cameron his life back. We are eternally grateful for your huge heart and talent Dr. Keshishian. Thank you!
During our time in Glendale in 2015 for Cameron’s surgery Dr. Keshishian and I began discussing my situation. I had been given a virgin Duodenal Switch performed by a surgeon in Illinois in September of 2013. A year later in 2014 and 180 lbs lighter, I ended up in the hospital as I was passing out. I had a resting heart rate of 35 BPM, a blood pressure in the 75/40 range and incredibly bad labs including anemia, low copper, low zinc, and dangerously low albumin and total protein. A full cardiac work up was completed and I spent a week in intermediate care. Why? I was extremely malnourished even though I was consuming 200-250 grams of protein daily! Why was I malnourished? Because my original surgeon performed a “cookie cutter DS” on me where he didn’t measure my small bowel and arbitrarily gave this 6’2 man a 100 cm common channel and a 150 cm Alimentary limb. Way too short on the AL! Had the Hess method been followed (the only way the DS should be allowed to be completed) my CC would have been 100 cm (that was okay) but my Alimentary channel should have been 275 cm! Simply put, my absorbing portion of small bowel was 34% and the Biliopancreatic limb (non-absorbing) was 66%. It should have been a 50/50 ratio with 100 cm CC, 275 cm AL and a 375 cm BPL. In order to combat my severe malnutrition that September of 2014 I went on a pancreatic enzyme (CREON) to assist my nutrient absorption. I was taking with meals right around 400,000 IU’s of CREON (a boat load) and this was barely keeping my nutrients in range and lab values barely in range. After speaking with Dr. Keshishian, he recommended that I give it until around September of 2015 to see if my absorption increased enough to where a revision wouldn’t be required. Towards the end of July, I all of the sudden lost nearly 20 pounds in two weeks from my already frail and scrawny body. I saw my surgeon in Peoria as I was very alarmed; and I had been having bad cramping and other issues point to a possible bowel obstruction His exact words to me were “see me in 30 days, you are like the DS poster boy of good nutrition”. As you can imagine I found that completely unacceptable and soon as I was out of that appointment I emailed Dr. Keshishian. He told me that if I couldn’t get a revision ASAP I would need to immediately go on TPN. Two weeks later my wife and I landed at LAX and were in Glendale on Monday morning for an exam with Dr. Keshishian.
The job Dr. Keshishian did describing what he was going to do, and of course this was a visual presentation with Dr. Keshishian drawing (you know Dr K’s love of drawing) out for us what he was going to do. He thoroughly explained for my wife and I so she was comfortable with what was going to happen and we fully understood what he was going to do. Doc also found an umbilical hernia that he was going to repair and I had an anal fissure as well that wouldn’t heal so we discussed what he would do to examine and possibly fix during my revision surgery. The next day Dr. Keshishian performed surgery where he fixed the umbilical hernia, measured my total small bowel length to determine appropriate channel lengths and found an repaired a huge mesenteric defect (intestinal hernia and Dr K has a picture of my guts with the huge hole in the mesentery that he has posted on his blog discussing intestinal hernias and blockages), fixed my fissure (Thank you!) and put in a side by side anastomosis that effectively lengthened my AL by 125 cm and my CC by 25 cm worth of absorption. This put my absorbing intestine to BPL ratio where it should have been in the first place (50/50 ratio).
I am pleased to say that I immediately went off the CREON and my absorption and subsequently my lab values improved tremendously. At surgery on August 18, 2015 I weighed a whopping 170 lbs. Today I am weighing in at 183 pounds and well on my way to Dr. Keshishian’s suggested optimal weight target of 205.
Dr. Keshishian is absolutely amazing and the best in the world when it comes to performing the Duodenal Switch and revision to DS Surgery (Band to DS, RnY to DS, Channel extending revision to DS). I would recommend Dr. Keshishian to any patient who needs a virgin Duodenal Switch to get their health back and especially to those who were sold a garbage RnY or Crapband procedure that ultimately failed you (it failed you, you did not fail). In fact, I am trying very hard to convince my brother and Step Mother to fly to Glendale and have Dr. Keshishian perform a Duodenal Switch on them. They very much need it for their health and Dr. Keshishian is the best in the world having performed over 2,000 DS procedures.
I don’t say this lightly. Ara, you are one of the finest human beings I have ever had the good fortune of knowing and your surgical skills are second to none. I really do admire and love this gentleman like a brother and consider him to be a friend. Thank you for using your incredible skill to fix my health issues resultant from the failed cookie cutter Duodenal Switch I was given two years earlier by another surgeon. Had I met you back then and knew what I know now, you would have performed my virgin DS and I would not have suffered for two plus years. Thank you from the bottom of my heart, Dr. K!
Weight loss surgical procedures may result in varying degrees of nutritional deficiencies. Some of these nutritional deficiencies may cause neuromuscular disease if left untreated, these include vitamins, minerals, and protein. The long-term effect of these deficiencies may presents as neuromuscular conditions including, weakness, numbness, confusion and all others if not-diagnosed and untreated. It is important to note that all weight loss surgical procedures require lifetime vitamin, mineral supplements and protein monitoring and possible supplements.
The table below outlines some of the specific neurological and neuromuscular disease complications following bariatric surgery. The most common deficiencies seen with the duodenal switch operation are fat soluble vitamin deficiencies. These include, Vitamin A, D, E and K. Duodenal Switch patients need oral supplements of Dry “Water Miscible” type of Vitamin A, D, E, and K based on their laboratory studies and needs.
The neurological deficiencies are manifested much more frequently with the Gastric Bypass than the duodenal switch operation. The most common nutritional deficients are that of B1, B12, Folate deficiencies that are common in Gastric Bypass. A list of possible neurologic deficiencies and there associated symptoms were summarized by Becker (2012). Another article with Nutritional Neuropathies.
Nutritional deficiencies are seen in a number of illnesses including weight loss surgery patients.
Vitamin A and D are fat soluble vitamins. This means that in order for them to be absorbed by the GI track, them need to be absorbed by fat globules (chylomicrons). These are then taken up by the lymphatics of the GI track and taken to the blood stream. With the anatomical changes of the Duodenal Switch, the fat absorption capacity is significantly reduced. This results in excellent weight loss. It also results in much diminished absorption of the Fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. It is essential to use Dry Water Soluble forms of Vitamins A, D, E, and K. Bio-Tech is a brand that is formulated in this manner.
The Biotech D3-50 has 50,000IU of Vitamin D.
We recommend specific dosages of dry (water soluble) Vitamin A and D. These are not available at most pharmacies. In fact when our recommendations are presented at most pharmacies they are incorrectly dispensed with the fat soluble variety with is worth less becasue it is not absorbed by the duodenal switch patients. It is also important to not that this type of vitamin should not be taken with any dietary fat. Fat can inhibit the absorption of this type of vitamin. When ordering online, please make sure that the “Dry” or “Water Soluble” formulary is ordered.