1-818-812-7222 Office Hours: 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM
10 Congress St., Suite #300
Pasadena, CA 91105

Results for : "Vitamin A"

Vitamin D2 Vs D3

March 24, 2016 9:17 am

Thank you to Contributor: Mariam Michelle Gyulnazaryan

Vitamins are organic, essential nutrients that are necessary to keep your body in good health. Most vitamins must be obtained through diet because they cannot be synthesized in the body. However, the human body is able to make its own vitamin D in the skin through sun exposure or it can be obtained by food and supplements of Vitamin D3.

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is responsible for regulating muscle contraction, immune function, bone health, and intestinal absorption of magnesium, calcium, phosphate, iron, and zinc. Good sources of Vitamin D include sun exposure, dairy products, fatty fish, fortified orange juice, cod liver oil, mushrooms, and supplements.

There are two types of Vitamin D: D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3 (cholecalciferol). Both types have the same mechanism of action, but different sources and kinetics.

vitd_sources
Caption: Vitamin D sources

Ergocalciferol is easily obtained through Vitamin D-rich foods in normal anatomy. However, a post Duodenal Switch patient will have less absorption of Vitamin D via food due to fat malabsorption.  Ergocalciferol is hydroxylated to ercalcidiol [25(OH)D2] in the liver. Its second hydroxylation takes places in the kidney, where it is converted to the active form of Vitamin D2 known as ercalcitriol [1,25(OH)2D2]. Now in it’s active form, Vitamin D2 can bind to the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and help the body where it’s needed.
In the epidermis of the skin, precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) forms cholecalciferol as a result of UVB radiation. Several factors such as increased skin pigmentation, age, and sunscreen application reduce the skin’s production of choleciferol (6). Cholecalciferol is hydroxylated in the liver to become calcidiol [25(OH)D3]. It is then moved to the kidney for further hydroxylation to Vitamin D3’s active form known as calcitriol [1,25(OH)2D3], also called calcifediol. The active form allows binding to VDR for biological activity.

1425178595082
Caption: The mechanism and effects of Vitamin D. Source: jennyrosepaul.com

Both forms of Vitamin D have been shown to effectively increase 25(OH)D levels. Research shows that after administering a single dose of 50,000 international units (IU) Vitamin D2 or D3, both experienced a similar increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration. However, Vitamin D2 levels rapidly declined while Vitamin D3 levels remained high (1). Further studies have confirmed that Vitamin D3 is more effective in elevating and maintaining 25(OH)D levels for a longer amount of time (5). Scientists believe the most reasonable explanation for Vitamin D3’s substantial efficacy is its higher affinity to metabolites, which results in a longer circulating half-life than Vitamin D2 making it more potent(4). For a post Duodenal Switch patient, due to fat malabsorption, it is important to use “Dry” Water Miscible form of Vitamin D3.

Example of a Dry Water Miscible form of Vitamin D3
Example of a Dry Water Miscible form of Vitamin D3

A 25-hydroxy Vitamin D blood test is the most accurate way to measure levels. A level between 20 ng/mL-50 ng/mL may be  considered sufficient, however in our bariatric practice we would like to keep the levels in 60-80 ng/mL.  It is worth nothing that recently the reference ranges was increase to 30-100 ng/mL.  Treatments of Vitamin D deficiency include frequent sun exposure, fortified foods, supplements, and injectables. in addition to 50000IU of vitamin D on daily basis in emulsified (water soluble) formulary or unto 600,000IU in injection form. The parallel guide for adequate vitamin D supplementation is normalization of PTH levels. Monitoring these levels is imperative in a post bariatric patient.

In conclusion, studies have shown that Vitamin D2 and D3 are not interchangeable. Although they have comparable absorption, Vitamin D2 has a shorter duration of action which makes it less potent than Vitamin D3. Researchers have shown that neither form is harmful to treat Vitamin D deficiency, but they should not be considered bio-equivalent.

References
1. Armas LAG, Hollis BW, Heaney RP. Vitamin D2 is much less effective than Vitamin D3 in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2004; 89(11) 5387-5391.
2. Creighton D, Ignaszewski A, Francis G. Vitamin D: new d-fence against cardiovascular disease. BCMJ. 2012; 54(3) 136-140.
3. Holick MF, Schnoes HK, DeLuca HF. Identification of 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol, a form of Vitamin D3 metabolically active in the intestine. PNAS. 1971; 68(4) 803-804.
4. Hollis BW. Comparison of equilibrium and disequilibrium assay conditions for ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol and their major metabolites. J Steroid Biochem. 1984; 21(1) 81-86.
5. Houghton LA, Vieth R. The case against ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84 (4): 694-697.
6. Howick Mf, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM. Evaluation, treatment and prevention of Vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(7) 1911-1930.
7. Johal M, Levin A. Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone in general populations: understandings in 2009 and applications to chronic kidney disease. CJASN. 2009; 4(9) 1508-1514.
8. Tetley EA, Brule D, Cheney MC, Davis Cd, Esslingen KA, Fischer PWF, Friedl KE, Green-Finestone LA, Guenther PM, Klurfeld DM, L’Abbe MR, McMurry KY, Starke-Reed PE, Trumbo PR. Dietary reference intakes for Vitamin D: justification for a review of the 1997 values. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89(3) 719-727.
9. Tripkovic L, Lambert H, Hard K, Smith CP, Bucca G, Penson S, Chope G, Hypponen E, Berry J, Vieth R, Lanham-New S. Comparison of Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95(6) 1357-1364.

Vitamin K1

April 08, 2015 7:16 pm

Vitamin K1 is a found in dark green leafy vegetables, asparagus, brussels sprouts, some grains,  olive oil, prunes, soy bean oil, and canola oil.  The body has limited storage capacity for Vitamin K and uses a recycle system to reuse it.

Vitamin K1 is a fat-soluble vitamin that after Duodenal Switch is not as easily absorbed due to the limiting contact of the food product with the bile until the common channel.  Bile is needed to absorb fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins.

Duodenal Switch patients in need of Vitamin K1 supplements should take “Dry” or water miscible type of Vitamin K1, such as Biotech brand.  The patients laboratory studies will determine if a patient requires Vitamin K1 supplement. Duodenal Switch patients should  have laboratory studies drawn and evaluated at least on a yearly basis. Vitamin K works in a delicate balance with other supplements and should be monitored by a physician,  in at risk people.

vitamink3
vitamink3
Screen-Shot-2015-04-08-at-10.40

Vitamin K1 is most know for it’s coagulation effect and the clotting cascade.  Vitamin K1 works with calcium and proteins in order to accomplish coagulation synethesis. Care should be taken with Vitamin K supplementation and anti-coagulation (blood thinners) therapy.  Please see your physician regarding any supplementation of Vitamin K and blood thinner medications.

A discovery of Vitamin K dependent proteins has led to research on Vitamin K1 in bone health.  Bone matrix proteins, specifically osteocalcin, undergo gamma carboxylation with calcium much the way coagulation factors do; this process also requires Vitamin K. Osteocalcin is a Gla-protein that is regulated by Vitamin D.  The calcium binding ability of osteocalcin requires several Vitamin K carboxylations to exert it’s effects on bone mineralization.

vitamin-2Bk
vitamin-2Bk

In adults, the causes of Vitamin K1 deficiency include the following :

Chronic illness
Malnutrition
Alcoholism
Multiple abdominal surgeries
Long-term parenteral nutrition
Malabsorption
Cholestatic disease
Parenchymal liver disease
Cystic fibrosis
Inflammatory bowel disease
Medications:  Antibiotics (cephalosporin), cholestyramines, warfarin, salicylates, anticonvulsants, Cefamandole, cefoperazone, salicylates, hydantoins, rifampin, isoniazid, barbiturates, and certain sulfa drugs, higher Vitamin E can antagonized Vitamin K)
Massive transfusion
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) – Severe
Chronic kidney disease/hemodialysis

Additional information: https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminK/

Intake of Vitamin K1 and K2 and bone fracture risk

As always, discuss with your physicians and/or surgeon any changes in medications and supplements.  This is not meant to be an all inclusive discussion of Vitamin K.

Vitamin B6 Toxicity

April 01, 2015 7:58 pm

In recent years, we have noticed a trend of increased Vitamin B6 (Pyroxidine) levels in post Duodenal Switch patients’ laboratory studies.  Vitamin B6 is a water soluble vitamin, however, toxicity can happen with an increase in supplementation. The increased availability and amounts of Vitamin B6 in more supplements such as Calcium, multivitamins and B Complex supplements could be the cause of the trend post weight loss surgery.  Please be sure to check the amounts of Vitamin B6 within your daily supplements.

Vitamin B6 Function:

Vitamin B6 is an important water soluble vitamin which functions as co-enzymes in a number of metabolic pathways including  amino acids, fatty acids, glycogen, and steroid hormones (estrogen, cortisol, androgens and Vitamin D) metabolism.  Other biological functions are hemoglobin synthesis, immune function and inflamation, neurotransmission and gene expression. B6 has been shown to improve carpal tunnel syndrome, PMS, AADHD, Alzheimer’s, acne, lung cancer, high homocysteine levels, asthma, kidney sones, and some cases of depression and arthritis.  The U.S. Daily Recommended dose ins 1.2-2mg for adults.

Toxicity has most often happened from increased supplementation and rarely from food alone except for in a subset of people who may have increased sensitivity, gene mutations or other issues with Vitamin B6. In the average person,  doses of 1000mg per day which is about 800 times the daily amount from food can cause neuropathy and neurotoxicity. There have been instances of toxicity issues at doses of 500mg daily. Other symptoms associated with high levels of B6 are skin rashes, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, increased liver function tests, sensitivity to sunlight. Nerve damage or numbness and tingling of the feet, legs and hand, if left untreated, can become irreversible.  Stop taking B6 if you experience any of these symptoms.  The daily U.S. no adverse effects dose is set at a max of 200mg  daily. The daily recommend max limit is 100mg daily.

Drug interactions with high doses of B6 levels are phenobarbital, phenytoin and L-Dopa and cause decrease effectiveness.  B6 deficiency is a side effect of oral contraceptives, isoniazid, cycloserine, pencil amine, methylxanthines, and long term NSAIDs use due to impaired Vitamin B6 metabolism.

Once B6 levels are elevated it is important to to try to decrease intake as much as possible and levels will usually drop in weeks to months.  Read your labels of drinks, energy drinks, multi-vitamin, cold supplements, high B6 foods, protein supplements, and other sources.  These are items that typically have added high levels of B6 supplement.  You can also avoid group Vitamin B supplements and go to individual B vitamins that are needed.

Additional information on Vitamin B6. Please have your surgeon or your primary care physician review your laboratory studies. Seek medical attention if you are experiencing any of the above symptoms or any other unusual symptoms.

picture of food with Vitamin B6
Sources of dietary Vitamin B6

Patch or Spray Vitamins

August 15, 2014 10:37 pm

At the last group meeting, there were several questions whether vitamin D and other vitamins would be absorbed via patch (transdermal) and spray (buccal/sublingual) routes.  After reviewing several resources, the only article I could find was for transdermal Vitamin D absorption.  However, if we look at the mechanism for each route we can make an educated assumption.

Transdermal route of absorption (without additional absorption enhancers) (ref) requires a molecular mass less than 500 g/mole, high lipophilicity (affinity to fat or lipids), and low required daily dose (less than 2mg). The fat-soluble vitamins are definitely lipophilic, all of them have molecular weights less than 500 g/mole and daily dose is under 2mg. It seems that hydrophilic medications (that have an affinity to water) may have less ability to be absorbed with this route unless a chemical enhancer is added to the product. Most vitamins and minerals have lower molecular weights except Vitamin B12 which has too high of a molecular weight unless an enhancer is added. The transdermal route has slower absorption than buccal (oral mucosa) but faster than usual tablet oral route. The down side to transdermal route is possible skin issues due to medication, adhesives, and also different rates of absorption due to skin thickness and condition.

Buccal/sublingual route of absorption is dependent on lipid solubility, oil to water partition coeffincient, saliva pH, small to moderate molecular weight, and oral mucosa thickness. The mechanism of action is osmosis, which means items that readily dissolve in water are easily absorbed. Unlike orally ingested medicates, that take time to absorb and need to be filtered and/or processed in the liver, sublingual route is fast absorbing and the liver is bypassed. The down side to this route is it disrupts eating and drinking and is not efficient with smoking due to vasoconstriction.

An e-mail was sent to the companies inquiring about the outcomes of their products with people with malabsorption issues.  No response was received from the spray vitamin companies.A request was also sent to obtain any research articles they may have but a response has not been received at this time. The following is the response I received from the maker of Patch MD.

“I am the president and founder of Patch MD. We design Patch MD to help people that have digestive issues and malabsorption. Our whole premise is to avoid the digestive track, by doing so we avoid dealing with conditions such as short bowel syndrome, acid reflux, and bariatric surgery to name a few. People also with Crohn’s disease and iliac disease are challenged with digestion and absorption every day of their life. Our patches are designed specifically to pass nutrition through the skin into the bloodstream. We get letters every day from people that have had bariatric surgery and were unable to get vitamin D, calcium, the B’s and Vitamin A and K, our product works because we use the skin as our delivery system, absorption is through the skin, avoiding all digestive potential issues. The only problem that we may have is we tell our customers to use no lotions or cream in the patch application area, as you may understand it will prevent absorption. We are going to be at a national convention this weekend in Manhattan Beach California to take part and display our products at the ObesityHelp conference. They ask us to take part as they were getting great reviews from their members that are using the patch. All were improving their blood work after taking Patch MD patches.”

Earl Hailey, President Patch MD

In light of the review of data, it would seem that the transdermal route would be beneficial to people who are having issues maintaining blood levels of fat-soluble vitamin levels.  The other vitamins also have a good prospect of absorption via transdermal route.  Buccal or sublingual (sprays) would seem to have a better outcome for water-soluble vitamins unless there is an additive added to the product to increase the solubility of the fat-soluble vitamins and make them water miscible.  We must realize that there is no data for Duodenal Switch patients and very little data regarding these routes of absorption with vitamins specifically.  If you are going to try these types of vitamins you should be extremely diligent in following your laboratory studies for vitamin levels with greater frequency until it is determined they are maintaining your blood levels.

Also, it should be noted that water miscible (dry) Vitamin A, D, E, K are the only type of these vitamins a DS patients should be taking.  Over the counter Vitamin A, D, E, K are fat-soluble and due to the fat malabsorption after DS these type of vitamins are not appropriate to maintain blood levels.  Water miscible (dry) vitamins should NOT be taken with fatty or oily foods and should also be taken 30 minutes prior or 30 minutes after eating.  The water miscibility makes them water soluble and therefore will not have optimal absorption if taken with fat. Fat also increases the rate of digestion through the small bowel after DS and decreases the amount of time the vitamin has in the bowel and therefore, decreases absorption. They are best absorbed when taken on their own.

The good news patches and spray routes of administering medications and supplements is an up and coming area of research.  There are several ongoing research studies and new developments on the horizon for increasing absorbability of transdermal route with different types of additives and techniques. 

Injectable Vitamin D Information and Research Articles

July 11, 2014 1:06 am

Injectable Vitamin D may be needed in some cases of Vitamin D deficiency or inability to increase Vitamin D level with oral supplements. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin.  It plays an important role in bone metabolism and structure. It has also been found to affect the immune regulation, control off- inflammatory reactions, and also be involved in a number of broad cellular functions throughout the body.  Until a few years ago, very little attention was given to vitamin D levels. More recently, we have realized that due to a number of factors, there is a tendency for vitamin D deficiency to be present in the U.S. adult population. This finding is even more pronounced and severe in overweight patients.

The recommended dose for vitamin D supplements is much larger today than it was a few years ago. For example, it is not too uncommon to recommend an average dose of a 50,000 (IU) international unit of vitamin D by mouth on a daily basis after the duodenal switch operation.

Since vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin, it is important that the appropriate type be utilized. Dry formulation of vitamin D is needed to ensure adequate absorption. There are a number of manufacturers that produce these. When searching for Dry Vitamin D the type a patient should be looking for is “Dry” D3-50. Some larger supplement manufacturer’s carry these products. The links to these manufacturers is located here.  The “Dry” type of Vitamin D should NOT be taken with fatty or oily foods.  Also to optimizes absorption they should be taken either 30 minutes prior to eating food or 30 minutes after eating.

If you are deficient in Vitamin D after trying “Dry” or water miscible Vitamin D then intramuscular Vitamin D injections might be an effective way to normalize your Vitamin D levels. Vitamin D can be formulated and purchased from any compounding  pharmacies that are equipped and experienced in the interpretation of injectable vitamins and minerals.  Your primary care WILL need to contact the compounding pharmacy of their choose for the recommendations and be willing to make the injections available to you. UNLESS you have been told to stop taking your daily “Dry” Vitamin D tablet supplement you should continue taking it after the injection.

We are supplying the following so that your PCP will understand the research behind injectable Vitamin D and to hopefully ensure that every patient is armed with this knowledge. Vitamin D deficiencies are becoming more common place in society due to the use of sunscreen and sun shielding clothing and hats,  not only Duodenal Switch patients.

This is a research paper out of Finland that discusses injectable Vitamin D for the aged. The information can translate to anyone who finds themselves in a Vitamin  D deficit state. https://www.gwern.net/docs/nootropics/1992-heikinheimo.pdf

This research paper is out of Australia where despite then sun drenched climate they are experiencing a large amount of people with Vitamin D deficiencies due to sunscreen, veiling, malabsorption, etc.
https://www.direct-ms.org/pdf/VitDGenScience/Vit%20D%20deficiency%20Australia%20art%20and%20ed.pdf

Below find the order sheet with the Injectable Vitamin D concentration listed. The common dosing for the vitamin D is 600,000 IU, deep IM every 6 months till the levels are normalized. The patient then can take the oral supplements only.

Finally, this is an except from an another Australian research paper describing the use of Megadoses of injectable Vitamin D in patients after Biliopancreatic Diversion which has a malabsorptive component similar to Duodenal Switch.

Vitamin’s Physical State And Solubility are Two Different Things.

March 29, 2014 6:11 pm

One of the most common misconceptions regarding vitamins is that its physical shape and state (liquid versus solid) defines its solubility.  Water-soluble vitamins may be found in dry powder form (solid) or may be a form of liquid.  Fat-soluble vitamins may also be found in both solid and liquid form.  It is important to appreciate that one cannot assume that if a fat soluble vitamin is in liquid form in a gel cap it will be absorbed.  What makes a fat-soluble vitamin absorbable is not its liquid, physical state, but rather it’s molecular structure, which makes it possible to be absorbed.  When purchasing vitamins that are fat-soluble, labels such as “dry”, “water-soluble” are indications that it is water-soluble more important than its shape, size or the nature of the vitamin itself.
A liquid form of vitamin A and D may be less soluble than a dry powder form.  This is because it dry powder form may be chemically structured so that it is soluble in water versus a liquid form that is not.  An analogy will be the mixing of olive oil (liquid) with vinegar (liquid).  Olive oil will stay separated because it is not water-soluble even though it’s a liquid state.

Vitamins And Minerals

March 29, 2014 5:26 pm

Vitamins -Minerals
Function
Source
Problems with deficiency 
B1 (Thiamine)
Carbohydrate conversion, breaks down fats and protein, digestion, nervous system, skin, hair, eyes, mouth, liver, immune system
Pork, organ meats, whole grain and enriched cereals, brown rice, wheat germ, bran, brewer’s yeast, blackstrap molasses
Heart, age-related cognitive decline, Alzheimer’s, fatigue
B2 (Riboflavin)
Metabolism, carbohydrate conversion, breaks down fat and protein, digestion, nervous system, skin, hair, eyes, mouth, liver, antioxidant
Brewer’s yeast, almonds, organ meats, whole grains, wheat germ, mushrooms, soy, dairy, eggs, green vegetables
Anemia, decreased free radical protection, cataracts, poor thyroid function, B6 deficiency, fatigue, elevated homocysteine
B3 (Niacin)
Energy, digestion, nervous system, skin, hair, eyes, liver, eliminates toxins, sex/stress hormones, improves circulation
Beets, brewer’s yeast, meat, poultry, organ meats, fish, seeds, and nuts
Cracking, scaling skin, digestive problems, confusion, anxiety, fatigue
B5 (Pantothenate)
RBC production, sex and stress-related hormones, immune function, healthy digestion, helps use other vitamins
Meat, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, lentils, egg yolks, milk, sweet potatoes, seeds, nuts, wheat germ, salmon
Stress tolerance, wound healing, skin problems, fatigue
B6 (Pyridoxine)
Enzyme protein metabolism, RBC production, reduces homocysteine, nerve and muscle cells, DNA and RNA, B12 absorption, immune function
Poultry, tuna, salmon, shrimp, beef liver, lentils, soybeans, seeds, nuts, avocados, bananas, carrots, brown rice, bran, wheat germ, whole grain flour
Depression, sleep and skin problems, elevated homocysteine, increased heart disease risk
B12 (Cobalamin)
Healthy nerve cells, DNA/RNA, RBC production, iron function
Fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk and milk products
Anemia, fatigue, constipation, loss of appetite, weight, numbness and tingling in the hands ad feet, depression, dementia, poor memory, oral soreness
Biotin
Carbs, fat, and amino acid metabolism (the building blocks of protein)
Salmon, meats, vegetables, grains, legumes, lentils, egg yolks, milk, sweet potatoes, seeds, nuts, wheat germ
Depression, nervous system, premature graying, hair, skin
Folate
Mental health, infant DNA/RNA, adolescence and pregnancy, with B12 to regulate RBC production, iron function, reduce homocysteine
Supplementation, fortified grains, tomato juice, green vegetables, black-eyed peas, lentils, beans
Anemia, immune function, fatigue, insomnia, hair, high homocysteine, heart disease
Eyes, immune function, skin, essential cell growth and development
Milk, eggs, liver, fortified cereals, orange or green vegetables and fruits
Night blindness, immune function, zinc deficiency, fat malabsorption
Calcium and phosphorus levels, calcium absorption, bone mineralization
Sunlight, milk, egg yolk, liver, fish
Osteoporosis, calcium absorption, thyroid
Vitamin E
Antioxidant, regulates oxidation reactions, stabilizes cell membrane, immune function, protects against cardiovascular disease, cataracts, macular degeneration
Wheat germ, liver, eggs, nuts, seeds, cold pressed vegetable oils, dark leafy greens, sweet potatoes, avocado, asparagus
Skin, hair, rupturing of red blood cells, anemia, bruising, PMS< hot flashes, eczema, psoriasis, cataracts, wound healing, muscle weakness, sterility
Calcium
Bones, teeth, helps heart, nerves, muscles, body systems work properly, needs other nutrients to function
Dairy, wheat/soy flour, molasses, brewer’s yeast, Brazil nuts, broccoli, cabbage, dark leafy greens, hazelnuts, oysters, sardines, canned salmon
Osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteoarthritis, muscle cramps, irritability, acute anxiety, colon cancer risk
Chromium
Assists insulin function, increased fertility, carbohydrate/fat metabolism, essential for fetal growth/development
Supplementation, brewer’s yeast, whole grains, seafood, green beans, broccoli, prunes, nuts, potatoes, meat
Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance decreased fertility
Magnesium
300 biochemical reactions, muscle/nerve function, heart rhythm, immune system, strong bones, regulates calcium, copper, zinc, potassium, vitamin D
Green vegetables, beans & peas, nuts and seeds, whole unprocessed grain
Appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, numbness, tingling, cramps, seizures, personality changes, heart rhythm, heart spasms
Selenium
Antioxidant, works with vitamin E, immune function, prostaglandin production
Brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, liver, butter, cold water fish, shellfish, garlic, whole grains, sunflower seeds, Brazil nuts
Destruction to heart/pancreas, sore muscles, fragility of red blood cells, immune system
Zinc
Supports enzymes, immune system, wound healing, taste/smell, DNA synthesis, normal growth & development during pregnancy, childhood adolescence
Oysters, red meat, poultry, beans, nuts, seafood, whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals, and dairy
Growth retardation, hair loss, diarrhea, impotence, eye & skin lesions, loss of appetite, taste, weight loss, wound healing, mental lethargy
COQ10
Powerful antioxidant, stops oxidation of LDL cholesterol, energy production, important to heart, liver, and kidneys
Oily fish, organ meats, and whole grains
Congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, angina, mitral valve prolapsed, fatigue, gingivitis, immune system stroke, cardiac arrhythmias
Carnitine
Energy, heart function, oxidize amino acids for energy, metabolize ketones
Red meat, dairy, fish, poultry, (fermented soybeans), wheat, asparagus, avocados, peanut butter
Elevated cholesterol, liver function, muscle weakness, reduced energy, impaired glucose control
N-Acetyl Cystein (NAC) & Glutathione
Glutathione production, lowers homocysteine, lipoprotein, heal lungs, inflammation, decrease muscle fatigue, liver detoxification, immune function
Meats, ricotta, cottage cheese, yogurt, wheat germ, granola, and oat flakes
Free radical overload, elevated homocysteine, cancer risk, cataracts, macular degeneration, immune function, toxin elimination
Alpha Lipoic Acid
Energy, blood flow to nerves, glutathione levels in brain, insulin sensitivity, effectiveness of vitamins C, E, antioxidants
Supplementation, spinach, broccoli, beef, brewer’s yeast, some organ meats
Diabetic neuropathy, reduced muscle mass, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s, failure to thrive, brain atrophy, high lactic acid

Vitamin D And A -Dry (Water soluble) Formulary

August 24, 2013 7:57 pm

Vitamin A and D are fat soluble vitamins. This means that in order for them to be absorbed by the GI track, them need to be absorbed by fat globules (chylomicrons). These are then taken up by the lymphatics of the GI track and taken to the blood stream. With the anatomical changes of the Duodenal Switch, the fat absorption capacity is significantly reduced. This results in excellent weight loss. It also results in much diminished absorption of the Fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. It is essential to use Dry Water Soluble forms of Vitamins A, D, E, and K.  Bio-Tech is a brand that is formulated in this manner.

Screen Shot 2015-04-05 at 2.41.02 PM

The Biotech D3-50 has 50,000IU of Vitamin D.

IMG_0889

We recommend specific dosages of dry (water soluble) Vitamin A and D. These are not available at most pharmacies. In fact when our recommendations are presented at most pharmacies they are incorrectly dispensed with the fat soluble variety with is worth less becasue it is not absorbed by the duodenal switch patients.  It is also important to not that this type of vitamin should not be taken with any dietary fat.  Fat can inhibit the absorption of this type of vitamin. When ordering online, please make sure that the “Dry” or “Water Soluble” formulary is ordered.